2017 Nacken W, Wixler V, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S. (2017)
Influenza A virus NS1 protein-induce JNK activation and apoptosis are not functionally linked.
Cellular Microbiology DOI: 10.1111/cmi.12721 Klemm C, Bruchhagen C, van Krüchten A, Niemann S, Löffler B, Peters G, Ludwig S, Ehrhardt C. (2017)
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate IL-6 over-production during concomitant influenza virus and Staphylococcus aureus infection.
Scientific reports 7:42473. Börgeling Y and Ludwig S (2017)
Targeting a metabolic pathway to fight the flu.
The FEBS Journal 284:218–221 2016 Jansen F, Kley, N, Semmler I, Groschup MH, Ludwig S, and Semler SC (2016)
The German Research Platform for Zoonoses – One Health, One Research Community.
One Health 2: 155-156 Kathum OA, Schräder T, Anhlan, D, Nordhoff C, Liedmann S, Pande A, Mellmann A, Ehrhardt C, Wixler, V and Ludwig S (2016)
Phosphorylation of Influenza A virus NS1 protein at threonine 49 suppresses its interferon antagonistic activity.
Cellular Microbiology 18:784-791Silva IT, Geller FC, Persich L, Dudek SE, Lang KL, Caro MSB, Durán FJ, Schenkel EP, Ludwig S, and Simões CMO (2016)
Cytotoxic effects of natural and semisynthetic cucurbitacins on lung cancer cell line A549.
Invest New Drugs, 34:139-48 Dudek SE, Nitzsche K, Ludwig S, and Ehrhardt C (2016)
Influenza A viruses suppress cyclooxygenase-2 expression by affecting its mRNA stability.
Scientific reports 6:2727Derksen A, Kühn J, Hafezi W, Sendker J, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, and Hensel A. (2016)
Antiviral activity of hydroalcoholic extract from Eupatorium perfoliatum L. against the attachment of influenza A virus.
Journal of  Ethnopharmacology 188:144-152Leite Dantas R, Masemann D, Schied T, Bergmeier V, Vogl T, Loser K, Brachvogel B, Varga G, Ludwig S, and Wixler V. (2016)
Macrophage-mediated psoriasis can be suppressed by regulatory T lymphocytes.
Journal of Pathology 240:366-3772015Warnking K, Klemm C, Löffler B, Niemann S, van Krüchten A, Peters G, Ludwig S, and Ehrhardt C (2015). Super-infection with Staphylococcus aureus inhibits influenza virus-induced type I IFN signalling through impaired STAT1-STAT2 dimerization. Cellular Microbiology. 17, 303-317 Hrincius ER, Liedmann S, Finkelstein D, Vogel P, Gansebom S, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, Hains DS, Webby R, and McCullers JA (2015) NS1 mediated inhibition of c-Abl results in acute lung injury and priming for bacterial co-infections; insights into 1918 H1N1 pandemic? Journal of Infectious Diseases. 211, 1418-1428 Lê, VB, Schneider, JG, Börgeling Y, Berri F, Ducatez M, Guerin JL, Adrian I, Errazuriz-Cerda E, Frasquilho S, Antunes L, Lina B, Bordet JC, Jandrot-Perrus M, Ludwig S, and Riteau B (2015) Platelet activation and aggregation promote lung inflammation and influenza virus 1 pathogenesis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 191, 804-819 Silva IT, Carvalho A, Lang KL, Dudek SE, Masemann D, Durán FJ, Caro MSB, Rapp UR, Wixler V, Schenkel EP, Simões CMO, and Ludwig S (2015) In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of a novel semisynthetic derivative of cucurbitacin B PLoS ONE, 10:e0117794 Börgeling Y, Rozhdestvensky TS, Schmolke M, Resa-Infante P, Robeck T, Randau G, Wolff T, Gabriel G, Brosius J, and Ludwig S (2015) Evidence for a Novel Mechanism of Influenza Virus-Induced Type I Interferon Expression by a Defective RNA-Encoded Protein. PLoS Pathogens. 11:e1004924 2014Börgeling Y, Schmolke M, Viemann D, Nordhoff C, Roth J, Ludwig S. (2014)Inhibition of p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Impairs Influenza Virus-induced Primary and Secondary Host Gene Responses and Protects Mice from Lethal H5N1 Infection. J Biol Chem. 289(1):13-27.Dierkes, R., Warnking, K., Liedmann, S., Seyer, R., Ludwig, S., and Ehrhardt C. (2014) The Rac1 Inhibitor NSC23766 Exerts Anti-Influenza Virus Properties by Affecting the Viral Polymerase Complex Activity. PLoS ONE, 9, e88520Liedmann S, Hrincius ER, Anhlan D, McCullers JA, Ludwig S, Ehrhardt C.New Virulence Determinants Contribute to the Enhanced Immune Response and Reduced Virulence of an Influenza A Virus A/PR8/34 Variant. J Infect Dis. 209 (4): 532-541. Liedmann S, Hrincius ER, Guy C, Anhlan D, Dierkes R, Carter R, Wu G, Staeheli P, Green D, Wolff T, McCullers JA, Ludwig S, and Ehrhardt C (2014) Viral suppressors of the RIG-I-mediated interferon response are pre-packaged in influenza virions. Nature Communications 5, 5645. Köther K, Nordhoff C, Varga G, Bream JH, Gaestel M, Wixler V, and Ludwig S (2014) MAPKAP Kinase 3 suppresses Ifng gene expression and attenuates NK cell cytotoxicity and Th1 CD4 T cell development upon influenza A virus infection. FASEB Journal 28, 4235-4246. Nacken W, Anhlan D, Hrincius ER, Mostafa A, Wolff T, Sadewasser A, Pleschka S, Ehrhardt C, and Ludwig S (2014) Activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase upon Influenza AVirus (IAV) infection is independent of pathogen related receptors, but dependent on amino acid sequence variations of the IAV NS1. Journal of Virology 88, 8843-8852. Ludwig S, Zell R, Schwemmle M, and Herold S. (2014) Influenza, a One Health paradigm-Novel therapeutic strategies to fight a zoonotic pathogen with pandemic potential. International Journal of Medical Microbiology. 304, 894-901. (Review) Derksen A, Hensel A, Hafezi W, Herrmann F, Schmidt TJ, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, and Kühn J. (2014) 3-O-Galloylated Procyanidins from Rumex acetosa L. Inhibit the Attachment of Influenza A Virus. PLoS ONE. 9:e110089. Wixler V, Cromme C, Retser E, Meyer LH, Smyth N, Mühlenberg K, Korb-Pap A, Koers-Wunrau C, Sotsios Y, Bassel-Duby R, Baeten D, Tak PP, Niederreiter B, Redlich K, Bertrand J, Skryabin BV, Ludwig S, and Pap T. (2014) FHL2 regulates the resolution of tissue damage in chronic inflammatory arthritis. Annals of Rheumatic Diseases. 74:2216-23150. Haasbach E, Hartmayer C, Hettler A, Sarnecka A, Wulle U, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, and Planz O. (2014) Antiviral activity of Ladania067, an extract from wild black currant leaves against influenza A virus in vitro and in vivo. Frontiers in Microbiology. 5, 171. Hillesheim A, Nordhoff C, Boergeling Y, Ludwig S, and Wixler V. (2014) β-catenin promotes the type I IFN synthesis and the IFN-dependent signaling response but is suppressed by influenza A virus-induced RIG-I/NF-κB signaling. Cell Communication and Signaling. 12, 29.Ludwig S. (2014) Will omics help to cure the flu? Trends in Microbiology. 22, 232-233. (Review) Hrincius ER, Liedmann S, Anhlan D, Wolff T, Ludwig S, Ehrhardt C. (2014) Avian influenza viruses inhibit the major cellular signalling integrator c-Abl. Cellular Microbiology. 16,1854-1874.2013
Alnajar, A., Nordhoff, C., Schied, T., Chiquet-Ehrismann, R., Loser, K., Vogl, T., Ludwig, S., Wixler, V. (2013) The LIM-only protein FHL2 attenuates lung inflammation during bleomycin-induced fibrosis. PLoS ONE, 8, e81356
Ehrhardt, C., Dudek, S. E., Holzberg, M., Urban, S., Hrincius, E. R., Haasbach, E., Seyer, R., Lapuse, J., Planz, O., and Ludwig, S. (2013) A Plant Extract of Ribes nigrum folium Possesses Anti-Influenza Virus Activity In Vitro and In Vivo by Preventing Virus Entry to Host Cells. PLoS ONE8, e63657
Ehrhardt, C., Rückle, A., Hrincius, E. R., Haasbach, E., Anhlan, D., Ahmann, K., Banning, C., Reiling, S. J., Kühn, J., Strobl, S., Vitt, D., Leban, J., Planz, O., and Ludwig, S. (2013) The NF-κB inhibitor SC75741 efficiently blocks influenza virus propagation and confers a high barrier for development of viral resistance. Cellular Microbiology15, 1198-1211
Feld, M., Shpacovitch, V., Ehrhardt, C., Fastrich, M., Goerge, T., Ludwig, S., and Steinhoff, M. (2013) Proteinase-activated receptor-2 agonist activates anti-influenza mechanisms and modulates IFN γ -induced antiviral pathways in human neutrophils. BioMed Research International2013,2013, 879080
Friesenhagen, J., Viemann, D., Börgeling, Y., Schmolke, M., Spiekermann, C., Kirschnek, S., Ludwig, S., and Roth, J. (2013) Highly pathogenic influenza viruses inhibit inflammatory response in monocytes via activation of rar-related orphan receptor RORα. Journal of Innate Immunity5, 505-518
Haasbach, E., Reiling, S. J., Ehrhardt, C., Droebner, K., Rückle, A., Hrincius, E. R., Leban, J., Strobl, S., Vitt, D., Ludwig, S., and Planz, O. (2013) The NF-kappaB inhibitor SC75741 protects mice against highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus. Antiviral Research99, 336-344
Khoufache, K., Berri, F., Nacken, W., Vogel, A. B., Delenne, M., Camerer, E., Coughlin, S. R., Carmeliet, P., Lina, B., Rimmelzwaan, G. F., Planz, O., Ludwig, S., and Riteau, B. (2013) PAR1 contributes to influenza A virus pathogenicity in mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation123, 206-214
Loeffler, B., Niemann, S., Ehrhardt, C., Horn, D., Lanckohr, C., Lina, G., Ludwig, S., and Peters, G. (2013) Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia: the role of PVL and an influenza coinfection. Expert review of anti-infective therapy11, 1041-1051 (Review)
Retser, E., Schied, T., Skryabin, B. V., Vogl, T., Kanczler, J. M., Hamann, N., Niehoff, A., Hermann, S., Eisenblätter, M., Wachsmuth, L., Pap, T., Van Lent, P. L. E. M., Loser, K., Roth, J., Zaucke, F., Ludwig, S., and Wixler, V. (2013) Doxycycline-induced expression of transgenic human tumor necrosis factor α in adult mice results in psoriasis-like arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism65, 2290-2300
Silva, I. T., Teixeira, C. R., Lang, K. L., da Guimaraes, T. R., Dudek, S. E., Durán, F. J., Ludwig, S., Caro, M. S. B., Schenkel, E. P., and Simões, C. M. O. (2013) Proliferative inhibition and apoptotic mechanism on human non-small-cell lung cancer (A549 cells) of a novel cucurbitacin from Wilbrandia ebracteata cogn. International Journal of Cancer Research9, 54-68
Zell, R., Scholtissek, C., and Ludwig, S. (2013) Genetics, evolution, and the zoonotic capacity of European Swine influenza viruses. Current topics in microbiology and immunology370, 29-55 (Review)Musiol A, Gran S, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, Grewal T, Gerke V, Rescher U. (2013) Annexin A6-balanced late endosomal cholesterol controls influenza a replication and propagation. MBio, 4, e00608-132012
Anhlan, D., Hrincius, E. R., Scholtissek, C., and Ludwig, S. (2012) Introduction of silent mutations into the NP gene of influenza A viruses as a possible strategy for the creation of a live attenuated vaccine. Vaccine30, 4480-4489
Demirov, D., Gabriel, G., Schneider, C., Hohenberg, H., and Ludwig, S. (2012) Interaction of influenza A virus matrix protein with RACK1 is required for virus release. Cellular Microbiology14, 774-789
Friesenhagen, J., Boergeling, Y., Hrincius, E., Ludwig, S., Roth, J., and Viemann, D. (2012) Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses inhibit effective immune responses of human blood-derived macrophages. Journal of Leukocyte Biology92, 11-20
Herold, S., Ludwig, S., Pleschka, S., and Wolff, T. (2012) Apoptosis signaling in influenza virus propagation, innate host defense, and lung injury. Journal of Leukocyte Biology92, 75-82 (Review)
Hrincius, E. R., Hennecke, A. K., Gensler, L., Nordhoff, C., Anhlan, D., Vogel, P., McCullers, J. A., Ludwig, S., and Ehrhardt, C. (2012) A single point mutation (Y89F) within the non-structural protein 1 of influenza A viruses limits epithelial cell tropism and virulence in mice. American Journal of Pathology180, 2361-2374
Meisen, I., Dzudzek, T., Ehrhardt, C., Ludwig, S., Mormann, M., Rosenbrück, R., Lümen, R., Kniep, B., Karch, H., and Müthing, J. (2012) The human H3N2 influenza viruses A/Victoria/3/75 and A/Hiroshima/52/2005 preferentially bind to α2-3-sialylated monosialogangliosides with fucosylated poly-N-acetyllactosaminyl chains. Glycobiology22, 1055-1076
Nacken, W., Ehrhardt, C., and Ludwig, S. (2012) Small molecule inhibitors of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) possess antiviral activity against highly pathogenic avian and human pandemic influenza A viruses. Biological Chemistry393, 525-534
Niemann, S., Ehrhardt, C., Medina, E., Warnking, K., Tuchscherr, L., Heitmann, V., Ludwig, S., Peters, G., and Löffler, B. (2012) Combined action of influenza virus and staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin provokes severe lung epithelium damage. Journal of Infectious Diseases206, 1138-1148
Nordhoff, C., Hillesheim, A., Walter, B. M., Haasbach, E., Planz, O., Ehrhardt, C., Ludwig, S., and Wixler, V. (2012) The adaptor protein FHL2 enhances the cellular innate immune response to influenza A virus infection. Cellular Microbiology14, 1135-1147
Nordmann, A., Wixler, L., Boergeling, Y., Wixler, V., and Ludwig, S. (2012) A new splice variant of the human guanylate-binding protein 3 mediates anti-influenza activity through inhibition of viral transcription and replication. FASEB Journal26, 1290-1300
Rückle, A., Haasbach, E., Julkunen, I., Planz, O., Ehrhardt, C., and Ludwig, S. (2012) The NS1 protein of influenza A virus blocks RIG-I-Mediated activation of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway and p52/RelB-dependent gene expression in lung epithelial cells. Journal of Virology86, 10211-10217
Seyer, R., Hrincius, E. R., Ritzel, D., Abt, M., Mellmann, A., Marjuki, H., Kühn, J., Wolff, T., Ludwig, S., and Ehrhardt, C. (2012) Synergistic adaptive mutations in the hemagglutinin and polymerase acidic protein lead to increased virulence of pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza a virus in mice. Journal of Infectious Diseases205, 262-271
Walter, B. M., Nordhoff, C., Varga, G., Goncharenko, G., Schneider, S. W., Ludwig, S., and Wixler, V. (2012) Mss4 protein is a regulator of stress response and apoptosis. Cell Death and Disease3, e297
Winkler, M., Bertram, S., Gnirß, K., Nehlmeier, I., Gawanbacht, A., Kirchhoff, F., Ehrhardt, C., Ludwig, S., Kiene, M., Moldenhauer, A. S., Goedecke, U., Karsten, C. B., Kühl, A., and Pöhlmann, S. (2012) Influenza a virus does not encode a tetherin antagonist with Vpu-like activity and induces IFN-dependent tetherin expression in infected cells. PLoS ONE7, e433372011
Anhlan, D., Grundmann, N., Makalowski, W. H., Ludwig, S., and Scholtissek, C. (2011) Origin of the 1918 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus as studied by codon usage patterns and phylogenetic analysis. RNA17, 64-73
Blazejewska, P., Koscinski, L., Viegas, N., Anhlan, D., Ludwig, S., and Schughart, K. (2011) Pathogenicity of different PR8 influenza A virus variants in mice is determined by both viral and host factors. Virology412, 36-45
Droebner, K., Pleschka, S., Ludwig, S., and Planz, O. (2011) Antiviral activity of the MEK-inhibitor U0126 against pandemic H1N1v and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in vitro and in vivo. Antiviral Research92, 195-203
Dudek, S. E., Wixler, L., Nordhoff, C., Nordmann, A., Anhlan, D., Wixler, V., and Ludwig, S. (2011) The influenza virus PB1-F2 protein has interferon antagonistic activity. Biological Chemistry392, 1135-1144
Hrincius, E. R., Dierkes, R., Anhlan, D., Wixler, V., Ludwig, S., and Ehrhardt, C. (2011) Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is activated by influenza virus vRNA via the pathogen pattern receptor Rig-I to promote efficient type I interferon production. Cellular Microbiology13, 1907-1919
Ludwig, S. (2011) Disruption of virus-host cell interactions and cell signaling pathways as an anti-viral approach against influenza virus infections. Biological Chemistry392, 837-847 (Review)
Shpacovitch, V. M., Feld, M., Holzinger, D., Kido, M., Hollenberg, M. D., Levi-Schaffer, F., Vergnolle, N., Ludwig, S., Roth, J., Luger, T., and Steinhoff, M. (2011) Role of proteinase-activated receptor-2 in anti-bacterial and immunomodulatory effects of interferon-γ on human neutrophils and monocytes. Immunology133, 329-339
Viemann, D., Schmolke, M., Lueken, A., Boergeling, Y., Friesenhagen, J., Wittkowski, H., Ludwig, S., and Roth, J. (2011) H5N1 virus activates signaling pathways in human endothelial cells resulting in a specific imbalanced inflammatory response. Journal of Immunology186, 164-173
Wixler, V., Wixler, L., Altenfeld, A., Ludwig, S., Goody, R. S., and Itzen, A. (2011) Identification and characterisation of novel Mss4-binding Rab GTPases. Biological Chemistry392, 239-2482010
Dudek, S. E., Luig, C., Pauli, E. K., Schubert, U., and Ludwig, S. (2010) The clinically approved proteasome inhibitor PS-341 efficiently blocks influenza A virus and vesicular stomatitis virus propagation by establishing an antiviral state. Journal of Virology84, 9439-9451
Ehrhardt, C., Seyer, R., Hrincius, E. R., Eierhoff, T., Wolff, T., and Ludwig, S. (2010) Interplay between influenza A virus and the innate immune signaling. Microbes and Infection12, 81-87 (Review)
Eierhoff, T., Hrincius, E. R., Rescher, U., Ludwig, S., and Ehrhardt, C. (2010) The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) promotes uptake of influenza a viruses (IAV) into host cells. PLoS Pathogens6, e1001099
Hrincius, E. R., Wixler, V., Wolff, T., Wagner, R., Ludwig, S., and Ehrhardt, C. (2010) CRK adaptor protein expression is required for efficient replication of avian influenza A viruses and controls JNK-mediated apoptotic responses. Cellular Microbiology12, 831-843
Luig, C., Köther, K., Dudek, S. E., Gaestel, M., Hiscott, J., Wixler, V., and Ludwig, S. (2010) MAP kinase-activated protein kinases 2 and 3 are required for influenza A virus propagation and act via inhibition of PKR. FASEB Journal24, 4068-4077
Ma, W., Brenner, D., Wang, Z., Dauber, B., Ehrhardt, C., Högner, K., Herold, S., Ludwig, S., Wolff, T., Yu, K., Richt, J. A., Planz, O., and Pleschka, S. (2010) The NS segment of an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is sufficient to alter replication efficiency, cell tropism, and host range of an H7N1 HPAIV. Journal of Virology84, 2122-2133
Nordmann, A., Wixler, L., Ludwig, S., and Wixler, V. (2010) Monoclonal antibodies against the PB1-F2 protein of H1N1 influenza a virus. Hybridoma29, 321-326
Ohnesorge, N., Viemann, D., Schmidt, N., Czymai, T., Spiering, D., Schmolke, M., Ludwig, S., Roth, J., Goebeler, M., and Schmidt, M. (2010) Erk5 activation elicits a vasoprotective endothelial phenotype via induction of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4). Journal of Biological Chemistry285, 26199-262102009
Bender, H., Wiesinger, M. Y., Nordhoff, C., Schoenherr, C., Haan, C., Ludwig, S., Weiskirchen, R., Kato, N., Heinrich, P. C., and Haan, S. (2009) Interleukin-27 displays interferon-γ-like functions in human hepatoma cells and hepatocytes. Hepatology50, 585-591
Ehrhardt, C., and Ludwig, S. (2009) A new player in a deadly game: Influenza viruses and the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. Cellular Microbiology11, 863-871 (Review)
Eierhoff, T., Ludwig, S., and Ehrhardt, C. (2009) The influenza A virus matrix protein as a marker to monitor initial virus internalisation. Biological Chemistry390, 509-515
Ludwig, S. (2009) Targeting cell signalling pathways to fight the flu: Towards a paradigm change in anti-influenza therapy. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy64, 1-4 (Review)
Ludwig, S., and Wolff, T. (2009) Influenza A Virus TRIMs the Type I Interferon Response. Cell Host and Microbe5, 420-421 (Review)
Mitzner, D., Dudek, S. E., Studtrucker, N., Anhlan, D., Mazur, I., Wissing, J., Jänsch, L., Wixler, L., Bruns, K., Sharma, A., Wray, V., Henklein, P., Ludwig, S., and Schubert, U. (2009) Phosphorylation of the influenza a virus protein PB1-F2 by PKC is crucial for apoptosis promoting functions in monocytes. Cellular Microbiology11, 1502-1516
Pauli, E. K., Schmolke, M., Hofmann, H., Ehrhardt, C., Flory, E., Münk, C., and Ludwig, S. (2009) High level expression of the anti-retroviral protein APOBEC3G is induced by influenza A virus but does not confer antiviral activity. Retrovirology6, 38
Schmolke, M., Viemann, D., Roth, J., and Ludwig, S. (2009) Essential impact of NF-κB signaling on the H5N1 influenza A virus-induced transcriptome. Journal of Immunology183, 5180-5189
Spiering, D., Schmolke, M., Ohnesorge, N., Schmidt, M., Goebeler, M., Wegener, J., Wixler, V., and Ludwig, S. (2009) MEK5/ERK5 signaling modulates endothelial cell migration and focal contact turnover. Journal of Biological Chemistry284, 24972-24980
Wolff, T., and Ludwig, S. (2009) Influenza viruses control the vertebrate type i interferon system: Factors, mechanisms, and consequences. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research29, 549-557 (Review)2008
Bode, G., Lüken, A., Kerkhoff, C., Roth, J., Ludwig, S., and Nacken, W. (2008) Interaction between S100A8/A9 and annexin A6 is involved in the calcium-induced cell surface exposition of S100A8/A9. Journal of Biological Chemistry283, 31776-31784
Feld, M., Shpacovitch, V. M., Ehrhardt, C., Kerkhoff, C., Hollenberg, M. D., Vergnolle, N., Ludwig, S., and Steinhoff, M. (2008) Agonists of proteinase-activated receptor-2 enhance IFN-γ-inducible effects on human monocytes: Role in influenza A infection. Journal of Immunology180, 6903-6910
Kramer, A., Liashkovich, I., Oberleithner, H., Ludwig, S., Mazur, I., and Shahin, V. (2008) Apoptosis leads to a degradation of vital components of active nuclear transport and a dissociation of the nuclear lamina. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America105, 11236-11241
Ludwig, S. (2008) Highlight - Viruses and signaling. Biological Chemistry389, 1251 (Review)
Ludwig, S., and Planz, O. (2008) Influenza viruses and the NF-κB signaling pathway - Towards a novel concept of antiviral therapy. Biological Chemistry389, 1307-1312 (Review)
Mazur, I., Anhlan, D., Mitzner, D., Wixler, L., Schubert, U., and Ludwig, S. (2008) The proapoptotic influenza A virus protein PB1-F2 regulates viral polymerase activity by interaction with the PB1 protein. Cellular Microbiology10, 1140-1152
Park, J., Will, C., Martin, B., Gullotti, L., Friedrichs, N., Buettner, R., Schneider, H., Ludwig, S., and Wixler, V. (2008) Deficiency in the LIM-only protein FHL2 impairs assembly of extracellular matrix proteins. FASEB Journal22, 2508-2520
Pauli, E. K., Schmolke, M., Wolff, T., Viemann, D., Roth, J., Bode, J. G., and Ludwig, S. (2008) Influenza A virus inhibits type I IFN signaling via NF-κB-dependent induction of SOCS-3 expression. PLoS Pathogens4, e10001962007
Adler, H. S., Kubsch, S., Graulich, E., Ludwig, S., Knop, J., and Steinbrink, K. (2007) Activation of MAPkinase p38 is critical for the cell-cycle-controlled suppressor function of regulatory T cells. Blood109, 4351-4359
Albrecht, U., Yang, X., Asselta, R., Keitel, V., Tenchini, M. L., Ludwig, S., Heinrich, P. C., Häussinger, D., Schaper, F., and Bode, J. G. (2007) Activation of NF-κB by IL-1β blocks IL-6-induced sustained STAT3 activation and STAT3-dependent gene expression of the human γ-fibrinogen gene. Cellular Signalling19, 1866-1878
Droebner, K., Ehrhardt, C., Poetter, A., Ludwig, S., and Planz, O. (2007) CYSTUS052, a polyphenol-rich plant extract, exerts anti-influenza virus activity in mice. Antiviral Research76, 1-10
Ehlting, C., Lai, W. S., Schaper, F., Brenndörfer, E. D., Matthes, R. J., Heinrich, P. C., Ludwig, S., Blackshear, P. J., Gaestel, M., Häussinger, D., and Bode, J. G. (2007) Regulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) mRNA stability by TNF-α involves activation of the MKK6/p38MAPK/MK2 cascade. Journal of Immunology178, 2813-2826
Ehrhardt, C., Hrincius, E. R., Korte, V., Mazur, I., Droebner, K., Poetter, A., Dreschers, S., Schmolke, M., Planz, O., and Ludwig, S. (2007) A polyphenol rich plant extract, CYSTUS052, exerts anti influenza virus activity in cell culture without toxic side effects or the tendency to induce viral resistance. Antiviral Research76, 38-47
Ehrhardt, C., Wolff, T., and Ludwig, S. (2007) Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling by the nonstructural NS1 protein is not conserved among type A and B influenza viruses. Journal of Virology81, 12097-12100
Ehrhardt, C., Wolff, T., Pleschka, S., Planz, O., Beermann, W., Bode, J. G., Schmolke, M., and Ludwig, S. (2007) Influenza A virus NS1 protein activates the PI3/Akt pathway to mediate antiapoptotic signaling responses. Journal of Virology81, 3058-3067
Knoblauch, A., Will, C., Goncharenko, G., Ludwig, S., and Wixler, V. (2007) The binding of Mss4 to α-integrin subunits regulates matrix metalloproteinase activation and fibronectin remodeling. FASEB Journal21, 497-510
Ludwig, S. (2007) Influenza viruses and MAP kinase cascades - Novel targets for an antiviral intervention? Signal Transduction7, 81-88 (Review)
Ludwig, S. (2007) Exploited defense: How influenza viruses take advantage of antiviral signaling responses. Future Virology2, 91-100 (Review)
Mazur, I., Wurzer, W. J., Ehrhardt, C., Pleschka, S., Puthavathana, P., Silberzahn, T., Wolff, T., Planz, O., and Ludwig, S. (2007) Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) blocks influenza virus propagation via its NF-κB-inhibiting activity. Cellular Microbiology9, 1683-1694
Müller, V., Viemann, D., Schmidt, M., Endres, N., Ludwig, S., Leverkus, M., Roth, J., and Goebeler, M. (2007) Candida albicans triggers activation of distinct signaling pathways to establish a proinflammatory gene expression program in primary human endothelial cells. Journal of Immunology179, 8435-8445
Viemann, D., Schmidt, M., Tenbrock, K., Schmid, S., Müller, V., Klimmek, K., Ludwig, S., Roth, J., and Goebeler, M. (2007) The contact allergen nickel triggers a unique inflammatory and proangiogenic gene expression pattern via activation of NF-κB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Journal of Immunology178, 3198-3207
Vogl, T., Tenbrock, K., Ludwig, S., Leukert, N., Ehrhardt, C., Van Zoelen, M. A. D., Nacken, W., Foell, D., Van Der Poll, T., Sorg, C., and Roth, J. (2007) Mrp8 and Mrp14 are endogenous activators of Toll-like receptor 4, promoting lethal, endotoxin-induced shock. Nature Medicine13, 1042-10492006
Ehrhardt, C., Marjuki, H., Wolff, T., Nürnberg, B., Planz, O., Pleschka, S., and Ludwig, S. (2006) Bivalent role of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) during influenza virus infection and host cell defence. Cellular Microbiology8, 1336-1348
Ehrhardt, C., Schmolke, M., Matzke, A., Knoblauch, A., Will, C., Wixler, V., and Ludwig, S. (2006) Polyethylenimine, a cost-effective transfection reagent. Signal Transduction6, 179-184
Ludwig, S., Pleschka, S., Planz, O., and Wolff, T. (2006) Ringing the alarm bells: Signalling and apoptosis in influenza virus infected cells. Cellular Microbiology8, 375-386 (Review)
Marjuki, H., Alam, M. I., Ehrhardt, C., Wagner, R., Planz, O., Klenk, H. D., Ludwig, S., and Pleschka, S. (2006) Membrane accumulation of influenza A virus hemagglutinin triggers nuclear export of the viral genome via protein kinase Cα-mediated activation of ERK signaling. Journal of Biological Chemistry281, 16707-167152005
Bourteele, S., Oesterle, K., Pleschka, S., Unterstab, G., Ehrhardt, C., Wolff, T., Ludwig, S., and Planz, O. (2005) Constitutive activation of the transcription factor NF-κB results in impaired Borna disease virus replication. Journal of Virology79, 6043-6051
Unterstab, G., Ludwig, S., Anton, A., Planz, O., Dauber, B., Krappmann, D., Heins, G., Ehrhardt, C., and Wolff, T. (2005) Viral targeting of the interferon-β-inducing Traf family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK)-binding kinase-1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America102, 13640-13645
Voncken, J. W., Niessen, H., Neufeld, B., Rennefahrt, U., Dahlmans, V., Kubben, N., Holzer, B., Ludwig, S., and Rapp, U. R. (2005) MAPKAP kinase 3pK phosphorylates and regulates chromatin association of the polycomb group protein Bmi1. Journal of Biological Chemistry280, 5178-51872004
Ehrhardt, C., Kardinal, C., Wurzer, W. J., Wolff, T., Von Eichel-Streiber, C., Pleschka, S., Planz, O., and Ludwig, S. (2004) Rac1 and PAK1 are upstream of IKK-ε and TBK-1 in the viral activation of interferon regulatory factor-3. FEBS Letters567, 230-238
Krüll, M., Kramp, J., Petrov, T., Klucken, A. C., Hocke, A. C., Walter, C., Schmeck, B., Seybold, J., Maass, M., Ludwig, S., Kuipers, J. G., Suttorp, N., and Hippenstiel, S. (2004) Differences in cell activation by Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in human endothelial cells. Infection and Immunity72, 6615-6621
Ludwig, S., Wolff, T., Ehrhardt, C., Wurzer, W. J., Reinhardt, J., Planz, O., and Pleschka, S. (2004) MEK inhibition impairs influenza B virus propagation without emergence of resistant variants. FEBS Letters561, 37-43
Ölschläger, V., Pleschka, S., Fischer, T., Rziha, H. J., Wurzer, W., Stitz, L., Rapp, U. R., Ludwig, S., and Planz, O. (2004) Lung-specific expression of active Raf kinase results in increased mortality of influenza A virus-infected mice. Oncogene23, 6639-6646
Viemann, D., Goebeler, M., Schmid, S., Klimmek, K., Sorg, C., Ludwig, S., and Roth, J. (2004) Transcriptional profiling of IKK2/NF-κB- and p38 MAP kinase-dependent gene expression in TNF-α-stimulated primary human endothelial cells. Blood103, 3365-3373
Vogl, T., Ludwig, S., Goebeler, M., Strey, A., Thorey, I. S., Reichelt, R., Foell, D., Gerke, V., Manitz, M. P., Nacken, W., Werner, S., Sorg, C., and Roth, J. (2004) MRP8 and MRP14 control microtubule reorganization during transendothelial migration of phagocytes. Blood104, 4260-4268
Wurzer, W. J., Ehrhardt, C., Pleschka, S., Berberich-Siebelt, F., Wolff, T., Walczak, H., Planz, O., and Ludwig, S. (2004) NF-κB-dependent induction of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas/FasL is crucial for efficient influenza virus propagation. Journal of Biological Chemistry279, 30931-30937
Yang, X. P., Albrecht, U., Zakowski, V., Sobota, R. M., Häussinger, D., Heinrich, P. C., Ludwig, S., Bode, J. G., and Schaper, F. (2004) Dual function of interleukin-1β for the regulation of interleukin-6-induced suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expression. Journal of Biological Chemistry279, 45279-45289
Zakowski, V., Keramas, G., Kilian, K., Rapp, U. R., and Ludwig, S. (2004) Mitogen-activated 3p kinase is active in the nucleus. Experimental Cell Research299, 101-1092003
Bode, J. G., Ludwig, S., Ehrhardt, C., Albrecht, U., Erhardt, A., Schaper, F., Heinrich, P. C., and Häussinger, D. (2003) IFN-alpha antagonistic activity of HCV core protein involves induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3. The FASEB Journal17, 488-490
Ludwig, S., Planz, O., Pleschka, S., and Wolff, T. (2003) Influenza-virus-induced signaling cascades: Targets for antiviral therapy? Trends in Molecular Medicine9, 46-52 (Review)
Planz, O., Pleschka, S., Oesterle, K., Berberich-Siebelt, F., Ehrhardt, C., Stitz, L., and Ludwig, S. (2003) Borna disease virus nucleoprotein interacts with the Cdc2-cyclin B1 complex. Journal of Virology77, 11186-11192
Scheller, C., Sopper, S., Koutsilieri, E., Ludwig, S., Ter Meulen, V., and Jassoy, C. (2003) Caspase Inhibitors as a Supplement in Immune Activation Therapies to Achieve Eradication of HIV in Its Latent Reservoirs. Ann N Y Acad Sci., Vol. 1010 pp. 209-212
Wurzer, W. J., Planz, O., Ehrhardt, C., Giner, M., Silberzahn, T., Pleschka, S., and Ludwig, S. (2003) Caspase 3 activation is essential for efficient influenza virus propagation. EMBO Journal22, 2717-27282002
Kunz, M., Bloss, G., Gillitzer, R., Gross, G., Goebeler, M., Rapp, U. R., and Ludwig, S. (2002) Hypoxia/reoxygenation induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in melanoma cells: Involvement of nuclear factor-κB, stimulatory protein-1 transcription factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Biochemical Journal366, 299-306
Ludwig, S., Wang, X., Ehrhardt, C., Zheng, H., Donelan, N., Planz, O., Pleschka, S., Garcia-Sastre, A., Heins, G., and Wolff, T. (2002) The influenza A virus NS1 protein inhibits activation of Jun N-terminal kinase and AP-1 transcription factors. Journal of Virology76, 11166-11171
Scheller, C., Sopper, S., Chen, P., Flory, E., Koutsilieri, E., Racek, T., Ludwig, S., Meulen, V. T., and Jassoy, C. (2002) Caspase inhibition activates HIV in latently infected cells. Role of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 and CD95. Journal of Biological Chemistry277, 15459-15464
Scheller, C., Sopper, S., Ehrhardt, C., Flory, E., Chen, P., Koutsilieri, E., Ludwig, S., Ter Meulen, V., and Jassoy, C. (2002) Caspase inhibitors induce a switch from apoptotic to proinflammatory signaling in CD95-stimulated T lymphocytes. European Journal of Immunology32, 2471-24802001
Bode, J. G., Ludwig, S., Correia Freitas, C. A., Schaper, F., Ruhl, M., Melmed, S., Heinrich, P. C., and Häussinger, D. (2001) The MKK6/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is capable of inducing SOCS3 gene expression and inhibits IL-6-induced transcription. Biological Chemistry382, 1447-1453
Denk, A., Goebeler, M., Schmid, S., Berberich, I., Ritz, O., Lindemann, D., Ludwig, S., and Wirth, T. (2001) Activation of NF-κB via the IκB Kinase Complex is Both Essential and Sufficient for Proinflammatory Gene Expression in Primary Endothelial Cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry276, 28451-28458
Dinev, D., Jordan, B. W. M., Neufeld, B., Lee, J. D., Lindemann, D., Rapp, U. R., and Ludwig, S. (2001) Extracellular signal regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is required for the differentiation of muscle cells. EMBO Reports2, 829-834
Fischer, T. A., Ludwig, S., Flory, E., Gambaryan, S., Singh, K., Finn, P., Pfeffer, M. A., Kelly, R. A., and Pfeffer, J. M. (2001) Activation of cardiac c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinases with abrupt changes in hemodynamic load. Hypertension37, 1222-1228
Goebeler, M., Gillitzer, R., Kilian, K., Utzel, K., Bröcker, E. B., Rapp, U. R., and Ludwig, S. (2001) Multiple signaling pathways regulate NF-κB-dependent transcription of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene in primary endothelial cells. Blood97, 46-55
Jordan, B. W. M., Dinev, D., LeMellay, V., Troppmair, J., Götz, R., Wixler, L., Sendtner, M., Ludwig, S., and Rapp, U. R. (2001) Neurotrophin Receptor-interacting Mage Homologue Is an Inducible Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein-interacting Protein that Augments Cell Death. Journal of Biological Chemistry276, 39985-39989
Kunz, M., Ibrahim, S., Koczan, D., Thiesen, H. J., Köhler, H. J., Acker, T., Plate, K. H., Ludwig, S., Rapp, U. R., Bröcker, E. B., Van Muijen, G. N. P., Flory, E., and Gross, G. (2001) Activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) is critical for hypoxia-induced apoptosis of human malignant melanoma. Cell Growth and Differentiation12, 137-145
Labunski, S., Posern, G., Ludwig, S., Kundt, G., Eva, B. B., and Kunz, M. (2001) Tumour necrosis factor-α promoter polymorphism in erythema nodosum. Acta Dermato-Venereologica81, 18-21
Ludwig, S., Ehrhardt, C., Neumeier, E. R., Kracht, M., Rapp, U. R., and Pleschka, S. (2001) Influenza virus-induced AP-1-dependent gene expression requires activation of the JNK signaling pathway. Journal of Biological Chemistry276, 10990-10998
Ludwig, S., Ehrhardt, C., Neumeier, E. R., Kracht, M., Rapp, U. R., and Pleschka, S. (2001) Influenza Virus-induced AP-1-dependent Gene Expression Requires Activation of the JNK Signaling Pathway. Journal of Biological Chemistry276, 10990-10998
Planz, O., Pleschka, S., and Ludwig, S. (2001) MEK-specific inhibitor U0126 blocks spread of borna disease virus in cultured cells. Journal of Virology75, 4871-4877
Pleschka, S., Wolff, T., Ehrhardt, C., Hobom, G., Planz, O., Rapp, U. R., and Ludwig, S. (2001) Influenza virus propagation is impaired by inhibition of the Raf/MEK/ERK signalling cascade. Nature Cell Biology3, 301-305
Roth, J., Goebeler, M., Ludwig, S., Wagner, L., Kilian, K., Sorg, C., Harms, E., Schulze-Osthoff, K., and Koch, H. G. (2001) Homocysteine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-induced activation of endothelium via modulation of nuclear factor-κB activity. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research1540, 154-165
Schmidt, M., Gillitzer, R., Toksoy, A., Bröcker, E. B., Rapp, U. R., Paus, R., Roth, J., Ludwig, S., and Goebeler, M. (2001) Selective expression of calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 at distinct sites of hair follicles [1]. Journal of Investigative Dermatology117, 748-750
Terstegen, L., Gatsios, P., Ludwig, S., Pleschka, S., Jahnen-Dechent, W., Heinrich, P. C., and Graeve, L. (2001) The vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein inhibits glycoprotein 130-dependent STAT activation. Journal of Immunology167, 5209-52162000
Chen, P., Flory, E., Avots, A., Jordan, B. W. M., Kirchhoff, F., Ludwig, S., and Rapp, U. R. (2000) Transactivation of naturally occurring HIV-1 long terminal repeats by the JNK signaling pathway. The most frequent naturally occurring length polymorphism sequence introduces a novel binding site for AP-1 factors. Journal of Biological Chemistry275, 20382-20390
Flory, E., Kunz, M., Scheller, C., Jassoy, C., Stauber, R., Rapp, U. R., and Ludwig, S. (2000) Influenza virus-induced NF-κB-dependent gene expression is mediated by overexpression of viral proteins and involves oxidative radicals and activation of IκB kinase. Journal of Biological Chemistry275, 8307-8314
Hippenstiel, S., Soeth, S., Kellas, B., Fuhrmann, O., Seybold, J., Krüll, M., V. Eichel-Streiber, C., Goebeler, M., Ludwig, S., and Suttorp, N. (2000) Rho proteins and the p38-MAPK pathway are important mediators for LPS- induced interleukin-8 expression in human endothelial cells. Blood95, 3044-3051
Neufeld, B., Grosse-Wilde, A., Hoffmeyer, A., Jordan, B. W. M., Chen, P., Dinev, D., Ludwig, S., and Rapp, U. R. (2000) Serine/threonine kinases 3pK and MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 interact with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor E47 and repress its transcriptional activity. Journal of Biological Chemistry275, 20239-20242
Schmidt, M., Goebeler, M., Posern, G., Feller, S. M., Seitz, C. S., Bröcker, E. B., Rapp, U. R., and Ludwig, S. (2000) Ras-independent activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway upon calcium-induced differentiation of keratinocytes. Journal of Biological Chemistry275, 41011-410171999
Bode, J. G., Gatsios, P., Ludwig, S., Rapp, U. R., Häussinger, D., Heinrich, P. C., and Graeve, L. (1999) The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase p38 and its upstream activator MAP kinase kinase 6 are involved in the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription by hyperosmolarity. Journal of Biological Chemistry274, 30222-30227
Goebeler, M., Kilian, K., Gillitzer, R., Kunz, M., Yoshimura, T., Bröcker, E. B., Rapp, U. R., and Ludwig, S. (1999) The MKK6/p38 stress kinase cascade is critical for tumor necrosis factor-α-induced expression of monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 in endothelial cells. Blood93, 857-865
Hoffmeyer, A., Grosse-Wilde, A., Flory, E., Neufeld, B., Kunz, M., Rapp, U. R., and Ludwig, S. (1999) Different mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways cooperate to regulate tumor necrosis factor α gene expression in T lymphocytes. Journal of Biological Chemistry274, 4319-4327
Ludwig, S., Pleschka, S., and Wolff, T. (1999) A fatal relationship - Influenza virus interactions with the host cell. Viral Immunology12, 175-196 (Review)
New, L., Zhao, M., Li, Y., Bassett, W. W., Feng, Y., Ludwig, S., Padova, F. D., Gram, H., and Han, J. (1999) Cloning and characterization of RLPK, a novel RSK-related protein kinase. Journal of Biological Chemistry274, 1026-10321998
Ludwig, S., Hoffmeyer, A., Goebeler, M., Kilian, K., Häfner, H., Neufeld, B., Han, J., and Rapp, U. R. (1998) The stress inducer arsenite activates mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 via a MAPK kinase 6/p38- dependent pathway. Journal of Biological Chemistry273, 1917-19221997
Brown, I. H., Ludwig, S., Olsen, C. W., Hannoun, C., Scholtissek, C., Hinshaw, V. S., Harris, P. A., McCauley, J. W., Strong, I., and Alexander, D. J. (1997) Antigenic and genetic analyses of H1N1 influenza A viruses from European pigs. Journal of General Virology78, 553-5621996
Anchlan, D., Ludwig, S., Nymadawa, P., Mendsaikhan, J., and Scholtissek, C. (1996) Previous H1N1 influenza A viruses circulating in the Mongolian population. Archives of Virology141, 1553-1569
Ludwig, S., Engel, K., Hoffmeyer, A., Sithanandam, G., Neufeld, B., Palm, D., Gaestel, M., and Rapp, U. R. (1996) 3pK, a novel mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase, is targeted by three MAP kinase pathways. Molecular and Cellular Biology16, 6687-66971995
Ludwig, S., and Rapp, U. R. (1995) Cascading towards vascular disorder gene therapy. Nature Medicine1, 513-515 (Review)
Ludwig, S., Stitz, L., Planz, O., Van, H., Fitch, W. M., and Scholtissek, C. (1995) European swine virus as a possible source for the next influenza pandemic? Virology212, 555-561
Ludwig, S., Vogel, U., and Scholtissek, C. (1995) Amino acid replacements leading to temperature-sensitive defects of the NS1 protein of influenza A virus. Archives of Virology140, 945-9501994
Ludwig, S., Haustein, A., Kaleta, E. F., and Scholtissek, C. (1994) Recent influenza A (H1N1) infections of pigs and turkeys in northern Europe. Virology202, 281-286
Scholtissek, C., Ludwig, S., and Fitch, W. M. (1993) Analysis of influenza A virus nucleoproteins for the assessment of molecular genetic mechanisms leading to new phylogenetic virus lineages. Archives of Virology131, 237-250
Yamnikova, S. S., Mandler, J., Bekh-Ochir, Z. H., Dachtzeren, P., Ludwig, S., Lvov, D. K., and Scholtissek, C. (1993) A reassortant H1N1 influenza A virus caused fatal epizootics among camels in Mongolia. Virology197, 558-5631991
Mandler, J., Kunerl, M. S., Ludwig, S., Herget, M. E., and Scholtissek, C. (1991) Sequence of the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of the influenza A/anas acuta/Primorje/695/76 (H2N3) virus. Nucleic Acids Research19, 3456
Schultz, U., Fitch, W. M., Ludwig, S., Mandler, J., and Scholtissek, C. (1991) Evolution of pig influenza viruses. Virology183, 61-731990
Mandler, J., Gorman, O. T., Ludwig, S., Schroeder, E., Fitch, W. M., Webster, R. G., and Scholtissek, C. (1990) Derivation of the nucleoproteins (NP) of influenza A viruses isolated from marine mammals. Virology176, 255-261
Mandler, J., and Ludwig, S. (1990) SUBSIS: DNASIS(TM)/PROSIS(TM) subdirectory management. Computer Applications in the Biosciences6, 291-292
Ludwig, S., Schultz, U., Mandler, J., Fitch, W. M., and Scholtissek, C. (1991) Phylogenetic relationship of the nonstructural (NS) genes of influenza A viruses. Virology183, 566-577