Scopus ID: 7102479985



Ludwig S, Hrincius ER, and Boergeling Y (2021) The Two Sides of the Same Coin-Influenza Virus and Intracellular Signal Transduction. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 11(1):a038513. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a038513pii: a038513 (Review)

Patil A, Anhlan D, Ferrando V, Mecate-Zambrano A, Mellmann A, Wixler V, Boergeling Y, and Ludwig S (2021)  Phosphorylation of influenza A virus NS1 at serine 205 mediates its viral polymerase-enhancing function. J Virol. 95(6):e02369-20. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02369-20

Hoffmann M, Hofmann-Winkler H, Smith JC, Krüger N, Arora P, Sørensen LK, Søgaard OS, Hasselstrøm JB, Winkler M, Hempel T, Raich L, Olsson S, Danov O, Jonigk D, Yamazoe T, Yamatsuta K, Mizuno H, Ludwig S, Noé F, Kjolby M, Braun A, Sheltzer JM, Pöhlmann S. (2021) Camostat mesylate inhibits SARS-CoV-2 activation by TMPRSS2-related proteases and its metabolite GBPA exerts antiviral activity. EBioMedicine. 2021 Mar 3:103255. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103255.

Tran GVQ, Kleinehr J, Preugschas HF, Anhlan D, Mohamed FF, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, and Hrincius ER.(2021) Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay does not restrict influenza A virus propagation. Cell Microbiol. doi: 10.1111/cmi.13323.

Melo EM, Del Sarto J, Vago JP, Tavares LP, Rago F, Gonçalves APF, Machado MG, Aranda-Pardos I, Valiate BVS, Cassali GD, Pinho V, Sousa LP, A-Gonzalez N, Campagnole-Santos MJ, Bader M, Santos RAS, Machado AV, Ludwig S, and Teixeira MM. (2020) Relevance of Angiotensin-(1-7) and its receptor Mas in pneumonia caused by Influenza virus and post-influenza pneumococcal infection. Pharmacol Res. 163:105292. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2020.105292

Masemann D, Meissner R, Schied T, Lichty BD, Rapp UR, Wixler V, and Ludwig S. (2021) Synergistic anti-tumor efficacy of oncolytic influenza viruses and B7-H3 immune- checkpoint inhibitors against IC-resistant lung cancers. Oncoimmunology 10(1):1885778. doi: 10.1080/2162402X.2021.1885778

Bertoglio F, Meier D, Langereder N, Steinke S, Rand U, Simonelli L, Heine P, Ballmann R, Schneider KT, Roth K, Ruschig M, Riese P, Eschke K, Kim Y, Schäckermann D, Pedotti M, Kuhn P, Zock-Emmenthal S, Wöhrle J, Kilb N, Herz T, Becker M, Grashoff M, Wenzel E, Russo G, Kröger A, Brunotte L, Ludwig S, Fühner V, Krämer S, Dubel S, Varani L, Roth G, Cicin-Sain L, Schubert M, and Hust M (2021) SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing human recombinant antibodies selected from pre-pandemic healthy donors binding at RBD-ACE2 interface. Nat Commun (in press)

Del Sarto J, Gerlt V, Friedrich ME, Anhlan D, Wixler V, Teixeira MM, Boergeling Y, Stephan Ludwig (2021) Phosphorylation of JIP4 at S730 presents anti-viral properties against influenza A virus infection. bioRxiv 2021.01.22.427772; doi:



Sitnik S, Masemann D, Leite Dantas R, Wixler V, and Ludwig S. (2020) PD-1 IC Inhibition Synergistically Improves Influenza A Virus-Mediated Oncolysis of Metastatic Pulmonary Melanoma. Mol Ther Oncolytics. 2020;17:190-204.

Schreiber A, Boff L, Anhlan D, Krischuns T, Brunotte L, Schuberth C, Wedlich-Söldner R, Drexler H, and Ludwig S. (2020) Dissecting the mechanism of signaling-triggered nuclear export of newly synthesized influenza virus ribonucleoprotein complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A. 117(28), 16557-16566

Schreiber A, Liedmann S, Brunotte L, Anhlan D, Ehrhardt C, and Ludwig S (2020). Type I interferon antagonistic properties of influenza B virus polymerase proteins. Cell Microbiol.22(2):e13143. doi: 10.1111/cmi.13143.

Schloer S, Goretzko J, Pleschka S, Ludwig S, and Rescher U. (2020) Combinatory Treatment with Oseltamivir and Itraconazole Targeting Both Virus and Host Factors in Influenza A Virus Infection. Viruses. 12(7):E703. doi: 10.3390/v12070703.

Wilden JJ, van Krüchten A, Gieselmann L, Hrincius ER, Deinhardt-Emmer S, Haupt KF, Preugschas HF, Niemann S, Ludwig S, and Ehrhardt C. (2020) The influenza replication blocking inhibitor LASAG does not sensitize human epithelial cells for bacterial infections. PLoS One. 15(5):e0233052. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0233052.

Laure M, Hamza H, Koch-Heier J, Quernheim M, Müller C, Schreiber A, Müller G, Pleschka S, Ludwig S, and Planz O. (2020) Antiviral efficacy against influenza virus and pharmacokinetic analysis of a novel MEK-inhibitor, ATR-002, in cell culture and in the mouse model. Antiviral Res. 178:104806. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104806

Leite Dantas R, Bettenworth D, Varga G, Weinhage T, Wami HT, Dobrindt U, Roth J, Vogl T, Ludwig S, and Wixler V.  (2020) Spontaneous onset of TNFα-triggered colonic inflammation depends on functional T lymphocytes, S100A8/A9 alarmins, and MHC H-2 haplotype. J Pathol. 251(4):388-399. doi: 10.1002/path.5473

Ludwig S, and Zarbock A. (2020) Coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2: A Brief Overview. Anesth Analg. 131(1):93-96. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000004845 (Review)

Correa-Martínez CL, Kampmeier S, Kümpers P, Schwierzeck V, Hennies M, Hafezi W, Kühn J, Pavenstädt H, Ludwig S, and Mellmann A. (2020) A Pandemic in Times of Global Tourism: Superspreading and Exportation of COVID-19 Cases from a Ski Area in Austria. J Clin Microbiol. 58(6):e00588-20. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00588-20

Mecate-Zambrano A, Sukumar S, Seebohm G, Ciminski K, Schreiber A, Anhlan D, Greune L, Wixler L, Grothe S, Stein NC, Langer K, Schmidt A, Schwemmle M, Shi T, Ludwig S, and Boergeling Y (2020)    Discrete spatio-temporal tyrosine phosphorylation directs influenza A virus M1 protein towards its function in virion assembly. PLoS Pathog 16(8): e1008775.

Gerlach M, Wolff S, Ludwig S, Schaefer W, Keiner B, Roth NJ, and Widmer, E (2020) Rapid SARS-CoV-2 Inactivation by Commonly Available Chemicals on Inanimate Surfaces. J Hosp Infect

Peischard S, Ho HT, Piccini I, Strutz-Seebohm N, Röpke A, Liashkovich I, Gosain H, Rieger B, Klingel K, Eggers B, Marcus K, Linke WA, Müller FU, Ludwig S, Greber B, Busch K, and Seebohm G (2020) The first versatile human iPSC-based model of ectopic virus induction allows new insights in RNA-virus disease. Sci Rep 10, 16804. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-72966-9

Schloer S, Brunotte L, Goretzko J, Mecate-Zambrano A, Korthals N, Gerke V, Ludwig S, and Rescher U (2020) Targeting the endolysosomal host-SARS-CoV-2 interface by clinically licensed functional inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase (FIASMA) including the antidepressant fluoxetine. Emerg Microbes Infect

Boff L, Schreiber A, da Rocha Matos A, Del Sarto J, Brunotte L, Munkert J, Melo Ottoni F, Silva Ramos G, Kreis W, Castro Braga F, José Alves R, Maia de Pádua R, Maria Oliveira Simões C, and Ludwig S. (2020) Semisynthetic Cardenolides Acting as Antiviral Inhibitors of Influenza A Virus Replication by Preventing Polymerase Complex Formation. Molecules. 25(20):4853. doi: 10.3390/molecules25204853.

Masemann, D.; Ludwig, S., and Boergeling, Y. (2020) Advances in Transgenic Mouse Models to Study Infections by Human Pathogenic Viruses. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, 9289 (Review)

Wilden JJ, Hrincius ER, Niemann S, Boergeling Y, Löffler B, Ludwig S, and Ehrhardt C (2020) Impact of Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants on human lung epithelial cells with subsequent influenza virus infection. Microorganisms 8(12):1998. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms8121998

Chaudhry MZ, Eschke K, Grashoff M, Abassi L, Kim Y, Brunotte L, Ludwig S, Šafranko ŽM, Kurolt IC, Markotić A, Kröger A, Klawonn F, and Cicin-Sain L (2020) SARS-CoV-2 Quasispecies Mediate Rapid Virus Evolution and Adaptation. bioRxiv 2020.08.10.241414;



Vogl T, Stratis, A, Wixler V, Völler T, Thurainayagam S, Jorch SK, Zenker S, Dreiling A, Chakraborty D, Fröhling M, Paruzel P, Wehmeyer C, Hermann S, Papantonopoulou O, Geyer C, Loser K, Schäfers M, Ludwig S, Stoll M, Leanderson T, Schultze JL, König S, Pap T, and Roth J (2018) Auto-inhibitory regulation of S100A8/A9-alarmin activity locally restricts sterile inflammation. Journal of Clinical Investigation 128(5):1852-1866

Klemm C, Boergeling Y, Ludwig S, and Ehrhardt C (2018) Immunomodulatory Nonstructural Proteins of Influenza A Viruses. Trends in Microbiology 26(7):624-636 (Review)

Masemann D, Köther, K, Kuhlencord M, Varga G, Roth J, Lichty BD, Rapp UR, Wixler V, and Ludwig S (2018) Oncolytic influenza virus infection restores immunocompetence of lung tumor-associated alveolar macrophages. Oncoimmunology, 7(5):e1423171

Scheuch G, Canisius S, Nocker K-H, Hofmann T, Naumann R, Pleschka S, Ludwig S, Welte T, and Planz O (2018) Targeting intracellular signaling as antiviral strategy: Aerosolized LASAG for treatment against influenza in hospitalized patients. Emerging Microbes & Infections 7(1):21

Van Krüchten A, Wilden JJ, Niemann S, Peter G, Löffler B, Ludwig S, and Ehrhardt C (2018) Staphylococcus aureus triggers a shift from influenza virus–induced apoptosis to necrotic cell death. FASEB Journal 2(5):2779-2793.

Masemann D, Leite-Dantas R, Sitnik S, Schied T, Nordhoff C, Ludwig S, and Wixler V (2018) The LIM-only protein FHL2 supports influenza A virus induced lung inflammation by restricting the host adaptive immune response. American Journal of Pathology, 188:1236-1245

Krischuns T, Günl F, Henschel L, Binder M, Willemsen J, Schloer S, Rescher U, Gerlt V, Zimmer G, Nordhoff C, Ludwig S, and Brunotte L. (2018) Phosphorylation of TRIM28 Enhances the Expression of IFN-β and Proinflammatory Cytokines During HPAIV Infection of Human Lung Epithelial Cells. Frontiers of Immunology 9:2229.

Bruchhagen C, van Krüchten A, Klemm C, Ludwig S, and Ehrhardt C. (2018) In Vitro Models to Study Influenza Virus and Staphylococcus aureus Super-Infection on a Molecular Level. Methods in Molecular Biology.1836:375-386

Kühnl A, Musiol A, Heitzig N, Johnson DE, Ehrhardt C, Grewal T, Gerke V, Ludwig S, and Rescher U. (2018) Late Endosomal/Lysosomal Cholesterol Accumulation Is a Host Cell-Protective Mechanism Inhibiting Endosomal Escape of Influenza A Virus. MBio. 9(4). pii: e01345-18. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01345-18

Bruchhagen C, Jarick M, Mewis C, Hertlein T, Niemann S, Ohlsen K, Peters G, Planz O, Ludwig S, and Ehrhardt C. (2018) Metabolic conversion of CI-1040 turns a cellular MEK-inhibitor into an antibacterial compound. Scientific Reports 8(1):9114

Schräder T, Dudek SE, Schreiber A, Ehrhardt C, Planz O, and Ludwig S. (2018) The clinically approved MEK inhibitor Trametinib efficiently blocks influenza A virus propagation and cytokine expression. Antiviral Research 157:80-92




Preugschas HF, Hrincius ER, Mewis C, Tran GVQ, Ludwig S, and Ehrhardt C. (2019) Late activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway is required for translocation of the RSV F protein to the plasma membrane and efficient viral replication. Cellular Microbiology. 17:e12955.

Schloer S, Goretzko J, Kühnl A, Brunotte L, Ludwig S, and Rescher U (2019) The clinically licensed antifungal drug itraconazole inhibits influenza virus in vitro and in vivo. Emerging Microbes & Infections, 8:1, 80-93, DOI:10.1080/22221751.2018.1559709

Kim SY, Voelkl S, Ludwig S, Schneider H, Wixler V, and Park J (2019) Deficiency of Fhl2 leads to delayed neuronal cell migration and premature astrocyte differentiation. Journal of Cell Science 132(6) pii: jcs228940. doi: 10.1242/jcs.228940

Zhirnov OP, Konakova TE, Anhlan D, Ludwig S, and Isaeva EI. (2019) Cellular immune response in infected mice to NSP protein encoded by the negative strand NS RNA of influenza A virus. Microbiology Independent Journal 6(1), 28-36. doi: 10.18527/2500-2236-2019-6-1-28-36.

Baturcam E, Vollmer S, Schlüter H, Maciewicz RA, Kurian N, Vaarala O, Ludwig S, and Cunoosamy DM (2019) MEK inhibition drives anti-viral defence in RV but not RSV challenged 1 human airway epithelial cells through AKT/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signalling 2. Cell Communication and Signaling 17(1):78

Schloer S, Hübel, N, Masemann D, Pajonczyk D, Brunotte L, Ehrhardt C, Brandenburg LO, Ludwig S, Gerke V, and Rescher U (2019) The Annexin A1/FPR2 signaling axis expands alveolar macrophages, limits viral replication, and attenuates pathogenesis in the murine influenza A virus infection model. FASEB Journal 33:12188-12199

da Rocha Matos A, Wunderlich K, Schloer S, Schughart K, Geffers R, Seders M, Witt M, Christersson A, Wiewrodt R, Wiebe K, Barth P, Hocke A, Hippenstiel S, Hönzke K, Dittmer U, Sutter K, Rescher U, Rodionycheva S, Matera N, Ludwig S, Brunotte L (2019). Antiviral potential of human IFN-α subtypes against influenza A H3N2 infection in human lung explants reveals subtype-specific activities. Emerging Microbes & Infection. 8(1):1763-1776.



Nacken W, Wixler V, Ehrhardt C, and Ludwig S. (2017) Influenza A virus NS1 protein-induced JNK activation and apoptosis are not functionally linked. Cellular Microbiology 19(7). doi: 10.1111/cmi.1272

Klemm C, Bruchhagen C, van Krüchten A, Niemann S, Löffler B, Peters G, Ludwig S, and Ehrhardt C. (2017) Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate IL-6 over-production during concomitant influenza virus and Staphylococcus aureus infection. Scientific Reports 7:42473.

Boergeling Y and Ludwig S (2017) Targeting a metabolic pathway to fight the flu.The FEBS Journal 284:218–221 (Review)

Haasbach E, Mueller C, Ehrhardt C, Schreiber A, Pleschka S, Ludwig S, and Planz O (2017) The MEK-inhibitor CI-1040 displays a broad anti-influenza activity in vitro and provides a prolonged treatment window compared to standard of care in vivo. Antiviral Research 142:178-184

Masemann, D, Boergeling Y, and Ludwig S (2017) Employing RNA viruses to fight cancer - Novel insights into oncolytic virotherapy. Biological Chemistry 398:891-909 (Review)

Holzberg M, Boergeling Y, Schräder T, Ludwig S, and Ehrhardt C. (2017) Vemurafenib Limits Influenza A Virus Propagation by Targeting Multiple Signaling Pathways. Frontiers in  Microbiology. 8:2426.

Droebner K, Haasbach E, Dudek SE, Scheuch G, Nocker K, Canisius S, Ehrhardt C, von Degenfeld G, Ludwig S, Planz O. (2017) Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, and Antiviral Activity of BAY 81-8781, a Novel NF-κB Inhibiting Anti-influenza Drug. Frontiers in  Microbiology. 8:2130.

Leite Dantas R, Brachvogel B, Schied T, Bergmeier V, Skryabin B, Vogl T, Ludwig S, and Wixler V (2017) The LIM-Only Protein Four and a Half LIM Domain Protein 2 Attenuates Development of Psoriatic Arthritis by Blocking Adam17-Mediated Tumor Necrosis Factor Release. American Journal of Pathology 187:2388-2398



Kathum OA, Schräder T, Anhlan, D, Nordhoff C, Liedmann S, Pande A, Mellmann A, Ehrhardt C, Wixler, V and Ludwig S (2016) Phosphorylation of Influenza A virus NS1 protein at threonine 49 suppresses its interferon antagonistic activity. Cellular Microbiology 18:784-791

Silva IT, Geller FC, Persich L, Dudek SE, Lang KL, Caro MSB, Durán FJ, Schenkel EP, Ludwig S, and Simões CMO (2016) Cytotoxic effects of natural and semisynthetic cucurbitacins on lung cancer cell line A549. Investigational New Drugs, 34:139-48

Dudek SE, Nitzsche K, Ludwig S, and Ehrhardt C (2016) Influenza A viruses suppress cyclooxygenase-2 expression by affecting its mRNA stability. Scientific Reports 6:27275

Derksen A, Kühn J, Hafezi W, Sendker J, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, and Hensel A. (2016) Antiviral activity of hydroalcoholic extract from Eupatorium perfoliatum L. against the attachment of influenza A virus. Journal of  Ethnopharmacology 188:144-152

Leite Dantas R, Masemann D, Schied T, Bergmeier V, Vogl T, Loser K, Brachvogel B, Varga G, Ludwig S, and Wixler V. (2016) Macrophage-mediated psoriasis can be suppressed by regulatory T lymphocytes. Journal of Pathology 240:366-377

Jansen F, Kley, N, Semmler I, Groschup MH, Ludwig S, and Semler SC (2016) The German Research Platform for Zoonoses – One Health, One Research Community. One Health 2: 155-156 (Commentary)

Ponge J, Siqueira D, Horstkemper D, Hellingrath B, Ludwig S, and Buarque de Lima Neto F (2016) Automated Scalable Modeling for Population Microsimulations. Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence 16, DOI: 10.1109/SSCI.2016.7850160




Warnking K, Klemm C, Löffler B, Niemann S, van Krüchten A, Peters G, Ludwig S, and Ehrhardt C (2015). Super-infection with Staphylococcus aureus inhibits influenza virus-induced type I IFN signalling through impaired STAT1-STAT2 dimerization. Cellular Microbiology. 17, 303-317

Hrincius ER, Liedmann S, Finkelstein D, Vogel P, Gansebom S, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, Hains DS, Webby R, and McCullers JA (2015) NS1 mediated inhibition of c-Abl results in acute lung injury and priming for bacterial co-infections; insights into 1918 H1N1 pandemic? Journal of Infectious Diseases. 211, 1418-1428

Lê, VB, Schneider, JG, Boergeling Y, Berri F, Ducatez M, Guerin JL, Adrian I, Errazuriz-Cerda E, Frasquilho S, Antunes L, Lina B, Bordet JC, Jandrot-Perrus M, Ludwig S, and Riteau B (2015) Platelet activation and aggregation promote lung inflammation and influenza virus 1 pathogenesis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 191, 804-819

Silva IT, Carvalho A, Lang KL, Dudek SE, Masemann D, Durán FJ, Caro MSB, Rapp UR, Wixler V, Schenkel EP, Simões CMO, and Ludwig S (2015) In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of a novel semisynthetic derivative of cucurbitacin B PLoS ONE, 10:e0117794

Boergeling Y, Rozhdestvensky TS, Schmolke M, Resa-Infante P, Robeck T, Randau G, Wolff T, Gabriel G, Brosius J, and Ludwig S (2015) Evidence for a Novel Mechanism of Influenza Virus-Induced Type I Interferon Expression by a Defective RNA-Encoded Protein. PLoS Pathogens. 11:e1004924



Boergeling, Y., Schmolke, M., Viemann, D., Nordhoff, C., Roth, J., and Ludwig S. (2014) Inhibition of p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Impairs Influenza Virus-induced Primary and Secondary Host Gene Responses and Protect Mice from Lethal H5N1 Infection. Journal of Biological Chemistry 289, 13-27.

Dierkes, R., Warnking, K., Liedmann, S., Seyer, R., Ludwig, S., and Ehrhardt C. (2014) The Rac1 Inhibitor NSC23766 Exerts Anti-Influenza Virus Properties by Affecting the Viral Polymerase Complex Activity. PLoS ONE, 9, e88520

Liedmann, S., Hrincius, E.R., Anhlan, D., McCullers, J.A., Ludwig, S., and Ehrhardt C. (2014) New Virulence Determinants Contribute to the Enhanced Immune Response and Reduced Virulence of an Influenza A Virus A/PR8/34 Variant. Journal of Infectious Diseases 209, 532-541

Liedmann S, Hrincius ER, Guy C, Anhlan D, Dierkes R, Carter R, Wu G, Staeheli P, Green D, Wolff T, McCullers JA, Ludwig S, and Ehrhardt C (2014) Viral suppressors of the RIG-I-mediated interferon response are pre-packaged in influenza virions. Nature Communications 5, 5645.

Köther K, Nordhoff C, Varga G, Bream JH,  Gaestel M, Wixler V, and Ludwig S (2014) MAPKAP Kinase 3 suppresses Ifng gene expression and attenuates NK cell cytotoxicity and Th1 CD4 T cell development upon influenza A virus infection. FASEB Journal 28, 4235-4246.

Nacken W, Anhlan D, Hrincius ER, Mostafa A, Wolff T, Sadewasser A, Pleschka S, Ehrhardt C, and Ludwig S (2014) Activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase upon Influenza A Virus (IAV) infection is independent of pathogen related receptors, but dependent on amino acid sequence variations of the IAV NS1. Journal of  Virology 88, 8843-8852.

Ludwig S, Zell R, Schwemmle M, and Herold S. (2014) Influenza, a One Health paradigm-Novel therapeutic strategies to fight a zoonotic pathogen with pandemic potential. International Journal of Medical Microbiology. 304, 894-901. (Review)

Derksen A, Hensel A, Hafezi W, Herrmann F, Schmidt TJ, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, and Kühn J. (2014) 3-O-Galloylated Procyanidins from Rumex acetosa L. Inhibit the Attachment of Influenza A Virus. PLoS ONE. 9:e110089.

Wixler V, Cromme C, Retser E, Meyer LH, Smyth N, Mühlenberg K, Korb-Pap A, Koers-Wunrau C, Sotsios Y, Bassel-Duby R, Baeten D, Tak PP, Niederreiter B, Redlich K, Bertrand J, Skryabin BV, Ludwig S, and Pap T. (2014) FHL2 regulates the resolution of tissue damage in chronic inflammatory arthritis. Annals of Rheumatic Diseases. 74:2216-23150.

Haasbach E, Hartmayer C, Hettler A, Sarnecka A, Wulle U, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, and Planz O. (2014) Antiviral activity of Ladania067, an extract from wild black currant leaves against influenza A virus in vitro and in vivo. Frontiers in Microbiology. 5, 171.

Hillesheim A, Nordhoff C, Boergeling Y, Ludwig S, and Wixler V. (2014) β-catenin promotes the type I IFN synthesis and the IFN-dependent signaling response but is suppressed by influenza A virus-induced RIG-I/NF-κB signaling. Cell Communication and Signaling. 12, 29.

Ludwig S. (2014) Will omics help to cure the flu? Trends in Microbiology. 22, 232-233. (Review)

Hrincius ER, Liedmann S, Anhlan D, Wolff T, Ludwig S, Ehrhardt C. (2014) Avian influenza viruses inhibit the major cellular signalling integrator c-Abl. Cellular Microbiology. 16,1854-1874.



Ehrhardt, C., Dudek, S. E., Holzberg, M., Urban, S., Hrincius, E. R., Haasbach, E., Seyer, R., Lapuse, J., Planz, O., and Ludwig, S. (2013) A Plant Extract of Ribes nigrum folium Possesses Anti-Influenza Virus Activity In Vitro and In Vivo by Preventing Virus Entry to Host Cells. PLoS ONE 8, e63657

Ehrhardt, C., Rückle, A., Hrincius, E. R., Haasbach, E., Anhlan, D., Ahmann, K., Banning, C., Reiling, S. J., Kühn, J., Strobl, S., Vitt, D., Leban, J., Planz, O., and Ludwig, S. (2013) The NF-κB inhibitor SC75741 efficiently blocks influenza virus propagation and confers a high barrier for development of viral resistance. Cellular Microbiology 15, 1198-1211

Feld, M., Shpacovitch, V., Ehrhardt, C., Fastrich, M., Goerge, T., Ludwig, S., and Steinhoff, M. (2013) Proteinase-activated receptor-2 agonist activates anti-influenza mechanisms and modulates IFN γ -induced antiviral pathways in human neutrophils. BioMed Research International 2013, 2013, 879080

Friesenhagen, J., Viemann, D., Börgeling, Y., Schmolke, M., Spiekermann, C., Kirschnek, S., Ludwig, S., and Roth, J. (2013) Highly pathogenic influenza viruses inhibit inflammatory response in monocytes via activation of rar-related orphan receptor RORα. Journal of Innate Immunity 5, 505-518

Haasbach, E., Reiling, S. J., Ehrhardt, C., Droebner, K., Rückle, A., Hrincius, E. R., Leban, J., Strobl, S., Vitt, D., Ludwig, S., and Planz, O. (2013) The NF-kappaB inhibitor SC75741 protects mice against highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus. Antiviral Research 99, 336-344

Khoufache, K., Berri, F., Nacken, W., Vogel, A. B., Delenne, M., Camerer, E., Coughlin, S. R., Carmeliet, P., Lina, B., Rimmelzwaan, G. F., Planz, O., Ludwig, S., and Riteau, B. (2013) PAR1 contributes to influenza A virus pathogenicity in mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation 123, 206-214

Loeffler, B., Niemann, S., Ehrhardt, C., Horn, D., Lanckohr, C., Lina, G., Ludwig, S., and Peters, G. (2013) Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia: the role of PVL and an influenza coinfection. Expert review of anti-infective therapy 11, 1041-1051 (Review)

Retser, E., Schied, T., Skryabin, B. V., Vogl, T., Kanczler, J. M., Hamann, N., Niehoff, A., Hermann, S., Eisenblätter, M., Wachsmuth, L., Pap, T., Van Lent, P. L. E. M., Loser, K., Roth, J., Zaucke, F., Ludwig, S., and Wixler, V. (2013) Doxycycline-induced expression of transgenic human tumor necrosis factor α in adult mice results in psoriasis-like arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 65, 2290-2300

Silva, I. T., Teixeira, C. R., Lang, K. L., da Guimaraes, T. R., Dudek, S. E., Durán, F. J., Ludwig, S., Caro, M. S. B., Schenkel, E. P., and Simões, C. M. O. (2013) Proliferative inhibition and apoptotic mechanism on human non-small-cell lung cancer (A549 cells) of a novel cucurbitacin from Wilbrandia ebracteata cogn. International Journal of Cancer Research 9, 54-68

Zell, R., Scholtissek, C., and Ludwig, S. (2013) Genetics, evolution, and the zoonotic capacity of European Swine influenza viruses. Current topics in microbiology and immunology 370, 29-55 (Review)

Alnajar, A., Nordhoff, C., Schied, T., Chiquet-Ehrismann, R., Loser, K., Vogl, T., Ludwig, S., and Wixler, V. (2013) The LIM-only protein FHL2 attenuates lung inflammation during bleomycin-induced fibrosis. PLoS ONE, 8, e81356

Musiol A, Gran S, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, Grewal T, Gerke V, Rescher U. (2013) Annexin A6-balanced late endosomal cholesterol controls influenza a replication and propagation. MBio, 4, e00608-13



Anhlan, D., Hrincius, E. R., Scholtissek, C., and Ludwig, S. (2012) Introduction of silent mutations into the NP gene of influenza A viruses as a possible strategy for the creation of a live attenuated vaccine. Vaccine 30, 4480-4489

Demirov, D., Gabriel, G., Schneider, C., Hohenberg, H., and Ludwig, S. (2012) Interaction of influenza A virus matrix protein with RACK1 is required for virus release. Cellular Microbiology 14, 774-789

Friesenhagen, J., Boergeling, Y., Hrincius, E., Ludwig, S., Roth, J., and Viemann, D. (2012) Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses inhibit effective immune responses of human blood-derived macrophages. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 92, 11-20

Herold, S., Ludwig, S., Pleschka, S., and Wolff, T. (2012) Apoptosis signaling in influenza virus propagation, innate host defense, and lung injury. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 92, 75-82 (Review)

Hrincius, E. R., Hennecke, A. K., Gensler, L., Nordhoff, C., Anhlan, D., Vogel, P., McCullers, J. A., Ludwig, S., and Ehrhardt, C. (2012) A single point mutation (Y89F) within the non-structural protein 1 of influenza A viruses limits epithelial cell tropism and virulence in mice. American Journal of Pathology 180, 2361-2374

Meisen, I., Dzudzek, T., Ehrhardt, C., Ludwig, S., Mormann, M., Rosenbrück, R., Lümen, R., Kniep, B., Karch, H., and Müthing, J. (2012) The human H3N2 influenza viruses A/Victoria/3/75 and A/Hiroshima/52/2005 preferentially bind to α2-3-sialylated monosialogangliosides with fucosylated poly-N-acetyllactosaminyl chains. Glycobiology 22, 1055-1076

Nacken, W., Ehrhardt, C., and Ludwig, S. (2012) Small molecule inhibitors of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) possess antiviral activity against highly pathogenic avian and human pandemic influenza A viruses. Biological Chemistry 393, 525-534

Niemann, S., Ehrhardt, C., Medina, E., Warnking, K., Tuchscherr, L., Heitmann, V., Ludwig, S., Peters, G., and Löffler, B. (2012) Combined action of influenza virus and staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin provokes severe lung epithelium damage. Journal of Infectious Diseases 206, 1138-1148

Nordhoff, C., Hillesheim, A., Walter, B. M., Haasbach, E., Planz, O., Ehrhardt, C., Ludwig, S., and Wixler, V. (2012) The adaptor protein FHL2 enhances the cellular innate immune response to influenza A virus infection. Cellular Microbiology 14, 1135-1147

Nordmann, A., Wixler, L., Boergeling, Y., Wixler, V., and Ludwig, S. (2012) A new splice variant of the human guanylate-binding protein 3 mediates anti-influenza activity through inhibition of viral transcription and replication. FASEB Journal 26, 1290-1300

Rückle, A., Haasbach, E., Julkunen, I., Planz, O., Ehrhardt, C., and Ludwig, S. (2012) The NS1 protein of influenza A virus blocks RIG-I-Mediated activation of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway and p52/RelB-dependent gene expression in lung epithelial cells. Journal of Virology 86, 10211-10217

Seyer, R., Hrincius, E. R., Ritzel, D., Abt, M., Mellmann, A., Marjuki, H., Kühn, J., Wolff, T., Ludwig, S., and Ehrhardt, C. (2012) Synergistic adaptive mutations in the hemagglutinin and polymerase acidic protein lead to increased virulence of pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza a virus in mice. Journal of Infectious Diseases 205, 262-271

Walter, B. M., Nordhoff, C., Varga, G., Goncharenko, G., Schneider, S. W., Ludwig, S., and Wixler, V. (2012) Mss4 protein is a regulator of stress response and apoptosis. Cell Death and Disease 3, e297

Winkler, M., Bertram, S., Gnirß, K., Nehlmeier, I., Gawanbacht, A., Kirchhoff, F., Ehrhardt, C., Ludwig, S., Kiene, M., Moldenhauer, A. S., Goedecke, U., Karsten, C. B., Kühl, A., and Pöhlmann, S. (2012) Influenza a virus does not encode a tetherin antagonist with Vpu-like activity and induces IFN-dependent tetherin expression in infected cells. PLoS ONE 7, e43337



Anhlan, D., Grundmann, N., Makalowski, W. H., Ludwig, S., and Scholtissek, C. (2011) Origin of the 1918 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus as studied by codon usage patterns and phylogenetic analysis. RNA 17, 64-73

Blazejewska, P., Koscinski, L., Viegas, N., Anhlan, D., Ludwig, S., and Schughart, K. (2011) Pathogenicity of different PR8 influenza A virus variants in mice is determined by both viral and host factors. Virology 412, 36-45

Droebner, K., Pleschka, S., Ludwig, S., and Planz, O. (2011) Antiviral activity of the MEK-inhibitor U0126 against pandemic H1N1v and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in vitro and in vivo. Antiviral Research 92, 195-203

Dudek, S. E., Wixler, L., Nordhoff, C., Nordmann, A., Anhlan, D., Wixler, V., and Ludwig, S. (2011) The influenza virus PB1-F2 protein has interferon antagonistic activity. Biological Chemistry 392, 1135-1144

Hrincius, E. R., Dierkes, R., Anhlan, D., Wixler, V., Ludwig, S., and Ehrhardt, C. (2011) Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is activated by influenza virus vRNA via the pathogen pattern receptor Rig-I to promote efficient type I interferon production. Cellular Microbiology 13, 1907-1919

Ludwig, S. (2011) Disruption of virus-host cell interactions and cell signaling pathways as an anti-viral approach against influenza virus infections. Biological Chemistry 392, 837-847 (Review)

Shpacovitch, V. M., Feld, M., Holzinger, D., Kido, M., Hollenberg, M. D., Levi-Schaffer, F., Vergnolle, N., Ludwig, S., Roth, J., Luger, T., and Steinhoff, M. (2011) Role of proteinase-activated receptor-2 in anti-bacterial and immunomodulatory effects of interferon-γ on human neutrophils and monocytes. Immunology 133, 329-339

Viemann, D., Schmolke, M., Lueken, A., Boergeling, Y., Friesenhagen, J., Wittkowski, H., Ludwig, S., and Roth, J. (2011) H5N1 virus activates signaling pathways in human endothelial cells resulting in a specific imbalanced inflammatory response. Journal of Immunology 186, 164-173

Wixler, V., Wixler, L., Altenfeld, A., Ludwig, S., Goody, R. S., and Itzen, A. (2011) Identification and characterisation of novel Mss4-binding Rab GTPases. Biological Chemistry 392, 239-248



Dudek, S. E., Luig, C., Pauli, E. K., Schubert, U., and Ludwig, S. (2010) The clinically approved proteasome inhibitor PS-341 efficiently blocks influenza A virus and vesicular stomatitis virus propagation by establishing an antiviral state. Journal of Virology 84, 9439-9451

Ehrhardt, C., Seyer, R., Hrincius, E. R., Eierhoff, T., Wolff, T., and Ludwig, S. (2010) Interplay between influenza A virus and the innate immune signaling. Microbes and Infection 12, 81-87 (Review)

Eierhoff, T., Hrincius, E. R., Rescher, U., Ludwig, S., and Ehrhardt, C. (2010) The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) promotes uptake of influenza a viruses (IAV) into host cells. PLoS Pathogens 6, e1001099

Hrincius, E. R., Wixler, V., Wolff, T., Wagner, R., Ludwig, S., and Ehrhardt, C. (2010) CRK adaptor protein expression is required for efficient replication of avian influenza A viruses and controls JNK-mediated apoptotic responses. Cellular Microbiology 12, 831-843

Luig, C., Köther, K., Dudek, S. E., Gaestel, M., Hiscott, J., Wixler, V., and Ludwig, S. (2010) MAP kinase-activated protein kinases 2 and 3 are required for influenza A virus propagation and act via inhibition of PKR. FASEB Journal 24, 4068-4077

Ma, W., Brenner, D., Wang, Z., Dauber, B., Ehrhardt, C., Högner, K., Herold, S., Ludwig, S., Wolff, T., Yu, K., Richt, J. A., Planz, O., and Pleschka, S. (2010) The NS segment of an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is sufficient to alter replication efficiency, cell tropism, and host range of an H7N1 HPAIV. Journal of Virology 84, 2122-2133

Nordmann, A., Wixler, L., Ludwig, S., and Wixler, V. (2010) Monoclonal antibodies against the PB1-F2 protein of H1N1 influenza a virus. Hybridoma 29, 321-326

Ohnesorge, N., Viemann, D., Schmidt, N., Czymai, T., Spiering, D., Schmolke, M., Ludwig, S., Roth, J., Goebeler, M., and Schmidt, M. (2010) Erk5 activation elicits a vasoprotective endothelial phenotype via induction of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4). Journal of Biological Chemistry 285, 26199-26210



Bender, H., Wiesinger, M. Y., Nordhoff, C., Schoenherr, C., Haan, C., Ludwig, S., Weiskirchen, R., Kato, N., Heinrich, P. C., and Haan, S. (2009) Interleukin-27 displays interferon-γ-like functions in human hepatoma cells and hepatocytes. Hepatology 50, 585-591

Ehrhardt, C., and Ludwig, S. (2009) A new player in a deadly game: Influenza viruses and the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. Cellular Microbiology 11, 863-871 (Review)

Eierhoff, T., Ludwig, S., and Ehrhardt, C. (2009) The influenza A virus matrix protein as a marker to monitor initial virus internalisation. Biological Chemistry 390, 509-515

Ludwig, S. (2009) Targeting cell signalling pathways to fight the flu: Towards a paradigm change in anti-influenza therapy. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 64, 1-4 (Review)

Ludwig, S., and Wolff, T. (2009) Influenza A Virus TRIMs the Type I Interferon Response. Cell Host and Microbe 5, 420-421 (Review)

Mitzner, D., Dudek, S. E., Studtrucker, N., Anhlan, D., Mazur, I., Wissing, J., Jänsch, L., Wixler, L., Bruns, K., Sharma, A., Wray, V., Henklein, P., Ludwig, S., and Schubert, U. (2009) Phosphorylation of the influenza a virus protein PB1-F2 by PKC is crucial for apoptosis promoting functions in monocytes. Cellular Microbiology 11, 1502-1516

Pauli, E. K., Schmolke, M., Hofmann, H., Ehrhardt, C., Flory, E., Münk, C., and Ludwig, S. (2009) High level expression of the anti-retroviral protein APOBEC3G is induced by influenza A virus but does not confer antiviral activity. Retrovirology 6, 38

Schmolke, M., Viemann, D., Roth, J., and Ludwig, S. (2009) Essential impact of NF-κB signaling on the H5N1 influenza A virus-induced transcriptome. Journal of Immunology 183, 5180-5189

Spiering, D., Schmolke, M., Ohnesorge, N., Schmidt, M., Goebeler, M., Wegener, J., Wixler, V., and Ludwig, S. (2009) MEK5/ERK5 signaling modulates endothelial cell migration and focal contact turnover. Journal of Biological Chemistry 284, 24972-24980

Wolff, T., and Ludwig, S. (2009) Influenza viruses control the vertebrate type i interferon system: Factors, mechanisms, and consequences. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research 29, 549-557 (Review)



Bode, G., Lüken, A., Kerkhoff, C., Roth, J., Ludwig, S., and Nacken, W. (2008) Interaction between S100A8/A9 and annexin A6 is involved in the calcium-induced cell surface exposition of S100A8/A9. Journal of Biological Chemistry 283, 31776-31784

Feld, M., Shpacovitch, V. M., Ehrhardt, C., Kerkhoff, C., Hollenberg, M. D., Vergnolle, N., Ludwig, S., and Steinhoff, M. (2008) Agonists of proteinase-activated receptor-2 enhance IFN-γ-inducible effects on human monocytes: Role in influenza A infection. Journal of Immunology 180, 6903-6910

Kramer, A., Liashkovich, I., Oberleithner, H., Ludwig, S., Mazur, I., and Shahin, V. (2008) Apoptosis leads to a degradation of vital components of active nuclear transport and a dissociation of the nuclear lamina. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, 11236-11241

Ludwig, S. (2008) Highlight - Viruses and signaling. Biological Chemistry 389, 1251 (Review)

Ludwig, S., and Planz, O. (2008) Influenza viruses and the NF-κB signaling pathway - Towards a novel concept of antiviral therapy. Biological Chemistry 389, 1307-1312 (Review)

Mazur, I., Anhlan, D., Mitzner, D., Wixler, L., Schubert, U., and Ludwig, S. (2008) The proapoptotic influenza A virus protein PB1-F2 regulates viral polymerase activity by interaction with the PB1 protein. Cellular Microbiology 10, 1140-1152

Park, J., Will, C., Martin, B., Gullotti, L., Friedrichs, N., Buettner, R., Schneider, H., Ludwig, S., and Wixler, V. (2008) Deficiency in the LIM-only protein FHL2 impairs assembly of extracellular matrix proteins. FASEB Journal 22, 2508-2520

Pauli, E. K., Schmolke, M., Wolff, T., Viemann, D., Roth, J., Bode, J. G., and Ludwig, S. (2008) Influenza A virus inhibits type I IFN signaling via NF-κB-dependent induction of SOCS-3 expression. PLoS Pathogens 4, e1000196



Adler, H. S., Kubsch, S., Graulich, E., Ludwig, S., Knop, J., and Steinbrink, K. (2007) Activation of MAPkinase p38 is critical for the cell-cycle-controlled suppressor function of regulatory T cells. Blood 109, 4351-4359

Albrecht, U., Yang, X., Asselta, R., Keitel, V., Tenchini, M. L., Ludwig, S., Heinrich, P. C., Häussinger, D., Schaper, F., and Bode, J. G. (2007) Activation of NF-κB by IL-1β blocks IL-6-induced sustained STAT3 activation and STAT3-dependent gene expression of the human γ-fibrinogen gene. Cellular Signalling 19, 1866-1878

Droebner, K., Ehrhardt, C., Poetter, A., Ludwig, S., and Planz, O. (2007) CYSTUS052, a polyphenol-rich plant extract, exerts anti-influenza virus activity in mice. Antiviral Research 76, 1-10

Ehlting, C., Lai, W. S., Schaper, F., Brenndörfer, E. D., Matthes, R. J., Heinrich, P. C., Ludwig, S., Blackshear, P. J., Gaestel, M., Häussinger, D., and Bode, J. G. (2007) Regulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) mRNA stability by TNF-α involves activation of the MKK6/p38MAPK/MK2 cascade. Journal of Immunology 178, 2813-2826

Ehrhardt, C., Hrincius, E. R., Korte, V., Mazur, I., Droebner, K., Poetter, A., Dreschers, S., Schmolke, M., Planz, O., and Ludwig, S. (2007) A polyphenol rich plant extract, CYSTUS052, exerts anti influenza virus activity in cell culture without toxic side effects or the tendency to induce viral resistance. Antiviral Research 76, 38-47

Ehrhardt, C., Wolff, T., and Ludwig, S. (2007) Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling by the nonstructural NS1 protein is not conserved among type A and B influenza viruses. Journal of Virology 81, 12097-12100

Ehrhardt, C., Wolff, T., Pleschka, S., Planz, O., Beermann, W., Bode, J. G., Schmolke, M., and Ludwig, S. (2007) Influenza A virus NS1 protein activates the PI3/Akt pathway to mediate antiapoptotic signaling responses. Journal of Virology 81, 3058-3067

Knoblauch, A., Will, C., Goncharenko, G., Ludwig, S., and Wixler, V. (2007) The binding of Mss4 to α-integrin subunits regulates matrix metalloproteinase activation and fibronectin remodeling. FASEB Journal 21, 497-510

Ludwig, S. (2007) Influenza viruses and MAP kinase cascades - Novel targets for an antiviral intervention? Signal Transduction 7, 81-88 (Review)

Ludwig, S. (2007) Exploited defense: How influenza viruses take advantage of antiviral signaling responses. Future Virology 2, 91-100 (Review)

Mazur, I., Wurzer, W. J., Ehrhardt, C., Pleschka, S., Puthavathana, P., Silberzahn, T., Wolff, T., Planz, O., and Ludwig, S. (2007) Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) blocks influenza virus propagation via its NF-κB-inhibiting activity. Cellular Microbiology 9, 1683-1694

Müller, V., Viemann, D., Schmidt, M., Endres, N., Ludwig, S., Leverkus, M., Roth, J., and Goebeler, M. (2007) Candida albicans triggers activation of distinct signaling pathways to establish a proinflammatory gene expression program in primary human endothelial cells. Journal of Immunology 179, 8435-8445

Viemann, D., Schmidt, M., Tenbrock, K., Schmid, S., Müller, V., Klimmek, K., Ludwig, S., Roth, J., and Goebeler, M. (2007) The contact allergen nickel triggers a unique inflammatory and proangiogenic gene expression pattern via activation of NF-κB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Journal of Immunology 178, 3198-3207

Vogl, T., Tenbrock, K., Ludwig, S., Leukert, N., Ehrhardt, C., Van Zoelen, M. A. D., Nacken, W., Foell, D., Van Der Poll, T., Sorg, C., and Roth, J. (2007) Mrp8 and Mrp14 are endogenous activators of Toll-like receptor 4, promoting lethal, endotoxin-induced shock. Nature Medicine 13, 1042-1049



Ehrhardt, C., Marjuki, H., Wolff, T., Nürnberg, B., Planz, O., Pleschka, S., and Ludwig, S. (2006) Bivalent role of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) during influenza virus infection and host cell defence. Cellular Microbiology 8, 1336-1348

Ehrhardt, C., Schmolke, M., Matzke, A., Knoblauch, A., Will, C., Wixler, V., and Ludwig, S. (2006) Polyethylenimine, a cost-effective transfection reagent. Signal Transduction 6, 179-184

Ludwig, S., Pleschka, S., Planz, O., and Wolff, T. (2006) Ringing the alarm bells: Signalling and apoptosis in influenza virus infected cells. Cellular Microbiology 8, 375-386 (Review)

Marjuki, H., Alam, M. I., Ehrhardt, C., Wagner, R., Planz, O., Klenk, H. D., Ludwig, S., and Pleschka, S. (2006) Membrane accumulation of influenza A virus hemagglutinin triggers nuclear export of the viral genome via protein kinase Cα-mediated activation of ERK signaling. Journal of Biological Chemistry 281, 16707-16715



Bourteele, S., Oesterle, K., Pleschka, S., Unterstab, G., Ehrhardt, C., Wolff, T., Ludwig, S., and Planz, O. (2005) Constitutive activation of the transcription factor NF-κB results in impaired Borna disease virus replication. Journal of Virology 79, 6043-6051

Unterstab, G., Ludwig, S., Anton, A., Planz, O., Dauber, B., Krappmann, D., Heins, G., Ehrhardt, C., and Wolff, T. (2005) Viral targeting of the interferon-β-inducing Traf family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK)-binding kinase-1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, 13640-13645

Voncken, J. W., Niessen, H., Neufeld, B., Rennefahrt, U., Dahlmans, V., Kubben, N., Holzer, B., Ludwig, S., and Rapp, U. R. (2005) MAPKAP kinase 3pK phosphorylates and regulates chromatin association of the polycomb group protein Bmi1. Journal of Biological Chemistry 280, 5178-5187



Ehrhardt, C., Kardinal, C., Wurzer, W. J., Wolff, T., Von Eichel-Streiber, C., Pleschka, S., Planz, O., and Ludwig, S. (2004) Rac1 and PAK1 are upstream of IKK-ε and TBK-1 in the viral activation of interferon regulatory factor-3. FEBS Letters 567, 230-238

Krüll, M., Kramp, J., Petrov, T., Klucken, A. C., Hocke, A. C., Walter, C., Schmeck, B., Seybold, J., Maass, M., Ludwig, S., Kuipers, J. G., Suttorp, N., and Hippenstiel, S. (2004) Differences in cell activation by Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in human endothelial cells. Infection and Immunity 72, 6615-6621

Ludwig, S., Wolff, T., Ehrhardt, C., Wurzer, W. J., Reinhardt, J., Planz, O., and Pleschka, S. (2004) MEK inhibition impairs influenza B virus propagation without emergence of resistant variants. FEBS Letters 561, 37-43

Ölschläger, V., Pleschka, S., Fischer, T., Rziha, H. J., Wurzer, W., Stitz, L., Rapp, U. R., Ludwig, S., and Planz, O. (2004) Lung-specific expression of active Raf kinase results in increased mortality of influenza A virus-infected mice. Oncogene 23, 6639-6646

Viemann, D., Goebeler, M., Schmid, S., Klimmek, K., Sorg, C., Ludwig, S., and Roth, J. (2004) Transcriptional profiling of IKK2/NF-κB- and p38 MAP kinase-dependent gene expression in TNF-α-stimulated primary human endothelial cells. Blood 103, 3365-3373

Vogl, T., Ludwig, S., Goebeler, M., Strey, A., Thorey, I. S., Reichelt, R., Foell, D., Gerke, V., Manitz, M. P., Nacken, W., Werner, S., Sorg, C., and Roth, J. (2004) MRP8 and MRP14 control microtubule reorganization during transendothelial migration of phagocytes. Blood 104, 4260-4268

Wurzer, W. J., Ehrhardt, C., Pleschka, S., Berberich-Siebelt, F., Wolff, T., Walczak, H., Planz, O., and Ludwig, S. (2004) NF-κB-dependent induction of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas/FasL is crucial for efficient influenza virus propagation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 279, 30931-30937

Yang, X. P., Albrecht, U., Zakowski, V., Sobota, R. M., Häussinger, D., Heinrich, P. C., Ludwig, S., Bode, J. G., and Schaper, F. (2004) Dual function of interleukin-1β for the regulation of interleukin-6-induced suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expression. Journal of Biological Chemistry 279, 45279-45289

Zakowski, V., Keramas, G., Kilian, K., Rapp, U. R., and Ludwig, S. (2004) Mitogen-activated 3p kinase is active in the nucleus. Experimental Cell Research 299, 101-109



Bode, J. G., Ludwig, S., Ehrhardt, C., Albrecht, U., Erhardt, A., Schaper, F., Heinrich, P. C., and Häussinger, D. (2003) IFN-alpha antagonistic activity of HCV core protein involves induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3. The FASEB Journal 17, 488-490

Ludwig, S., Planz, O., Pleschka, S., and Wolff, T. (2003) Influenza-virus-induced signaling cascades: Targets for antiviral therapy? Trends in Molecular Medicine 9, 46-52 (Review)

Planz, O., Pleschka, S., Oesterle, K., Berberich-Siebelt, F., Ehrhardt, C., Stitz, L., and Ludwig, S. (2003) Borna disease virus nucleoprotein interacts with the Cdc2-cyclin B1 complex. Journal of Virology 77, 11186-11192

Scheller, C., Sopper, S., Koutsilieri, E., Ludwig, S., Ter Meulen, V., and Jassoy, C. (2003) Caspase Inhibitors as a Supplement in Immune Activation Therapies to Achieve Eradication of HIV in Its Latent Reservoirs.  Ann N Y Acad Sci., Vol. 1010 pp. 209-212

Wurzer, W. J., Planz, O., Ehrhardt, C., Giner, M., Silberzahn, T., Pleschka, S., and Ludwig, S. (2003) Caspase 3 activation is essential for efficient influenza virus propagation. EMBO Journal 22, 2717-2728



Kunz, M., Bloss, G., Gillitzer, R., Gross, G., Goebeler, M., Rapp, U. R., and Ludwig, S. (2002) Hypoxia/reoxygenation induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in melanoma cells: Involvement of nuclear factor-κB, stimulatory protein-1 transcription factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Biochemical Journal 366, 299-306

Ludwig, S., Wang, X., Ehrhardt, C., Zheng, H., Donelan, N., Planz, O., Pleschka, S., Garcia-Sastre, A., Heins, G., and Wolff, T. (2002) The influenza A virus NS1 protein inhibits activation of Jun N-terminal kinase and AP-1 transcription factors. Journal of Virology 76, 11166-11171

Scheller, C., Sopper, S., Chen, P., Flory, E., Koutsilieri, E., Racek, T., Ludwig, S., Meulen, V. T., and Jassoy, C. (2002) Caspase inhibition activates HIV in latently infected cells. Role of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 and CD95. Journal of Biological Chemistry 277, 15459-15464

Scheller, C., Sopper, S., Ehrhardt, C., Flory, E., Chen, P., Koutsilieri, E., Ludwig, S., Ter Meulen, V., and Jassoy, C. (2002) Caspase inhibitors induce a switch from apoptotic to proinflammatory signaling in CD95-stimulated T lymphocytes. European Journal of Immunology 32, 2471-248



Bode, J. G., Ludwig, S., Correia Freitas, C. A., Schaper, F., Ruhl, M., Melmed, S., Heinrich, P. C., and Häussinger, D. (2001) The MKK6/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is capable of inducing SOCS3 gene expression and inhibits IL-6-induced transcription. Biological Chemistry 382, 1447-1453

Denk, A., Goebeler, M., Schmid, S., Berberich, I., Ritz, O., Lindemann, D., Ludwig, S., and Wirth, T. (2001) Activation of NF-κB via the IκB Kinase Complex is Both Essential and Sufficient for Proinflammatory Gene Expression in Primary Endothelial Cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 28451-28458

Dinev, D., Jordan, B. W. M., Neufeld, B., Lee, J. D., Lindemann, D., Rapp, U. R., and Ludwig, S. (2001) Extracellular signal regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is required for the differentiation of muscle cells. EMBO Reports 2, 829-834

Fischer, T. A., Ludwig, S., Flory, E., Gambaryan, S., Singh, K., Finn, P., Pfeffer, M. A., Kelly, R. A., and Pfeffer, J. M. (2001) Activation of cardiac c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinases with abrupt changes in hemodynamic load. Hypertension 37, 1222-1228

Goebeler, M., Gillitzer, R., Kilian, K., Utzel, K., Bröcker, E. B., Rapp, U. R., and Ludwig, S. (2001) Multiple signaling pathways regulate NF-κB-dependent transcription of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene in primary endothelial cells. Blood 97, 46-55

Jordan, B. W. M., Dinev, D., LeMellay, V., Troppmair, J., Götz, R., Wixler, L., Sendtner, M., Ludwig, S., and Rapp, U. R. (2001) Neurotrophin Receptor-interacting Mage Homologue Is an Inducible Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein-interacting Protein that Augments Cell Death. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 39985-39989

Kunz, M., Ibrahim, S., Koczan, D., Thiesen, H. J., Köhler, H. J., Acker, T., Plate, K. H., Ludwig, S., Rapp, U. R., Bröcker, E. B., Van Muijen, G. N. P., Flory, E., and Gross, G. (2001) Activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) is critical for hypoxia-induced apoptosis of human malignant melanoma. Cell Growth and Differentiation 12, 137-145

Labunski, S., Posern, G., Ludwig, S., Kundt, G., Eva, B. B., and Kunz, M. (2001) Tumour necrosis factor-α promoter polymorphism in erythema nodosum. Acta Dermato-Venereologica 81, 18-21

Ludwig, S., Ehrhardt, C., Neumeier, E. R., Kracht, M., Rapp, U. R., and Pleschka, S. (2001) Influenza virus-induced AP-1-dependent gene expression requires activation of the JNK signaling pathway. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 10990-10998

Planz, O., Pleschka, S., and Ludwig, S. (2001) MEK-specific inhibitor U0126 blocks spread of borna disease virus in cultured cells. Journal of Virology 75, 4871-4877

Pleschka, S., Wolff, T., Ehrhardt, C., Hobom, G., Planz, O., Rapp, U. R., and Ludwig, S. (2001) Influenza virus propagation is impaired by inhibition of the Raf/MEK/ERK signalling cascade. Nature Cell Biology 3, 301-305

Roth, J., Goebeler, M., Ludwig, S., Wagner, L., Kilian, K., Sorg, C., Harms, E., Schulze-Osthoff, K., and Koch, H. G. (2001) Homocysteine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-induced activation of endothelium via modulation of nuclear factor-κB activity. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research 1540, 154-165

Schmidt, M., Gillitzer, R., Toksoy, A., Bröcker, E. B., Rapp, U. R., Paus, R., Roth, J., Ludwig, S., and Goebeler, M. (2001) Selective expression of calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 at distinct sites of hair follicles [1]. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 117, 748-750

Terstegen, L., Gatsios, P., Ludwig, S., Pleschka, S., Jahnen-Dechent, W., Heinrich, P. C., and Graeve, L. (2001) The vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein inhibits glycoprotein 130-dependent STAT activation. Journal of Immunology 167, 5209-5216



Chen, P., Flory, E., Avots, A., Jordan, B. W. M., Kirchhoff, F., Ludwig, S., and Rapp, U. R. (2000) Transactivation of naturally occurring HIV-1 long terminal repeats by the JNK signaling pathway. The most frequent naturally occurring length polymorphism sequence introduces a novel binding site for AP-1 factors. Journal of Biological Chemistry 275, 20382-20390

Flory, E., Kunz, M., Scheller, C., Jassoy, C., Stauber, R., Rapp, U. R., and Ludwig, S. (2000) Influenza virus-induced NF-κB-dependent gene expression is mediated by overexpression of viral proteins and involves oxidative radicals and activation of IκB kinase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 275, 8307-8314

Hippenstiel, S., Soeth, S., Kellas, B., Fuhrmann, O., Seybold, J., Krüll, M., V. Eichel-Streiber, C., Goebeler, M., Ludwig, S., and Suttorp, N. (2000) Rho proteins and the p38-MAPK pathway are important mediators for LPS- induced interleukin-8 expression in human endothelial cells. Blood 95, 3044-3051

Neufeld, B., Grosse-Wilde, A., Hoffmeyer, A., Jordan, B. W. M., Chen, P., Dinev, D., Ludwig, S., and Rapp, U. R. (2000) Serine/threonine kinases 3pK and MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 interact with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor E47 and repress its transcriptional activity. Journal of Biological Chemistry 275, 20239-20242

Schmidt, M., Goebeler, M., Posern, G., Feller, S. M., Seitz, C. S., Bröcker, E. B., Rapp, U. R., and Ludwig, S. (2000) Ras-independent activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway upon calcium-induced differentiation of keratinocytes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 275, 41011-41017



Bode, J. G., Gatsios, P., Ludwig, S., Rapp, U. R., Häussinger, D., Heinrich, P. C., and Graeve, L. (1999) The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase p38 and its upstream activator MAP kinase kinase 6 are involved in the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription by hyperosmolarity. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274, 30222-30227

Goebeler, M., Kilian, K., Gillitzer, R., Kunz, M., Yoshimura, T., Bröcker, E. B., Rapp, U. R., and Ludwig, S. (1999) The MKK6/p38 stress kinase cascade is critical for tumor necrosis factor-α-induced expression of monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 in endothelial cells. Blood 93, 857-865

Hoffmeyer, A., Grosse-Wilde, A., Flory, E., Neufeld, B., Kunz, M., Rapp, U. R., and Ludwig, S. (1999) Different mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways cooperate to regulate tumor necrosis factor α gene expression in T lymphocytes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274, 4319-4327

Ludwig, S., Pleschka, S., and Wolff, T. (1999) A fatal relationship - Influenza virus interactions with the host cell. Viral Immunology 12, 175-196 (Review)

New, L., Zhao, M., Li, Y., Bassett, W. W., Feng, Y., Ludwig, S., Padova, F. D., Gram, H., and Han, J. (1999) Cloning and characterization of RLPK, a novel RSK-related protein kinase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274, 1026-1032



Ludwig, S., Hoffmeyer, A., Goebeler, M., Kilian, K., Häfner, H., Neufeld, B., Han, J., and Rapp, U. R. (1998) The stress inducer arsenite activates mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 via a MAPK kinase 6/p38- dependent pathway. Journal of Biological Chemistry 273, 1917-1922



Brown, I. H., Ludwig, S., Olsen, C. W., Hannoun, C., Scholtissek, C., Hinshaw, V. S., Harris, P. A., McCauley, J. W., Strong, I., and Alexander, D. J. (1997) Antigenic and genetic analyses of H1N1 influenza A viruses from European pigs. Journal of General Virology 78, 553-562



Anhlan, D., Ludwig, S., Nymadawa, P., Mendsaikhan, J., and Scholtissek, C. (1996) Previous H1N1 influenza A viruses circulating in the Mongolian population. Archives of Virology 141, 1553-1569

Ludwig, S., Engel, K., Hoffmeyer, A., Sithanandam, G., Neufeld, B., Palm, D., Gaestel, M., and Rapp, U. R. (1996) 3pK, a novel mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase, is targeted by three MAP kinase pathways. Molecular and Cellular Biology 16, 6687-6697



Ludwig, S., and Rapp, U. R. (1995) Cascading towards vascular disorder gene therapy. Nature Medicine 1, 513-515 (Review)

Ludwig, S., Stitz, L., Planz, O., Van, H., Fitch, W. M., and Scholtissek, C. (1995) European swine virus as a possible source for the next influenza pandemic? Virology 212, 555-561

Ludwig, S., Vogel, U., and Scholtissek, C. (1995) Amino acid replacements leading to temperature-sensitive defects of the NS1 protein of influenza A virus. Archives of Virology 140, 945-950



Ludwig, S., Haustein, A., Kaleta, E. F., and Scholtissek, C. (1994) Recent influenza A (H1N1) infections of pigs and turkeys in northern Europe. Virology 202, 281-286



Scholtissek, C., Ludwig, S., and Fitch, W. M. (1993) Analysis of influenza A virus nucleoproteins for the assessment of molecular genetic mechanisms leading to new phylogenetic virus lineages. Archives of Virology 131, 237-250

Yamnikova, S. S., Mandler, J., Bekh-Ochir, Z. H., Dachtzeren, P., Ludwig, S., Lvov, D. K., and Scholtissek, C. (1993) A reassortant H1N1 influenza A virus caused fatal epizootics among camels in Mongolia. Virology 197, 558-563



Mandler, J., Kunerl, M. S., Ludwig, S., Herget, M. E., and Scholtissek, C. (1991) Sequence of the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of the influenza A/anas acuta/Primorje/695/76 (H2N3) virus. Nucleic Acids Research 19, 3456

Schultz, U., Fitch, W. M., Ludwig, S., Mandler, J., and Scholtissek, C. (1991) Evolution of pig influenza viruses. Virology 183, 61-73



Mandler, J., Gorman, O. T., Ludwig, S., Schroeder, E., Fitch, W. M., Webster, R. G., and Scholtissek, C. (1990) Derivation of the nucleoproteins (NP) of influenza A viruses isolated from marine mammals. Virology 176, 255-261

Mandler, J., and Ludwig, S. (1990) SUBSIS: DNASIS(TM)/PROSIS(TM) subdirectory management. Computer Applications in the Biosciences 6, 291-292

Ludwig, S., Schultz, U., Mandler, J., Fitch, W. M., and Scholtissek, C. (1991) Phylogenetic relationship of the nonstructural (NS) genes of influenza A viruses. Virology 183, 566-577