A complete list of publications can be found under



Recent examples include

Schmidt, A.*, Hrupka, B.*, van Bebber, Sunil Kumar, S., et al., Schulte-Merker, S., Lammert, E., Moechars, D., Schmid, B., Lichtenthaler, S.F. (2024) The Alzheimer´s disease-linked portease BACE2 cleaves vascular endothelial-growth-factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) and modulates its signaling. JCI  in press

Morooka, N., Gui, N., Ando, K., Sako, K., Fukumoto, M., Hußmann, M., Schulte-Merker, S., Mochizuki, N., Nakajima, H. (2024) Angpt1 binding to Tie1 regulates the signaling required for lymphatic vessel development in zebrafish. Development 151 (10) (doi:10.1242/dev.202269)
Chen, Q., Leshkowitz, D., Li, H., van Impel, A., Schulte-Merker, S., Amit, I.,Rizotti, K., Levkowitz, G. (2023) Neural plate progenitors give rise to both anterior and posterior pituitary cells. Dev. Cell 58,23 (2023): 2652-2665.e6 (doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2023.08.018)
Hußmann, M., Schulte, D., Weischer, S., Carlantoni, C., Nakajima, H., Mochizuki, M., Stainier D.Y.R, Zobel, T., Koch, M., Schulte-Merker, S. (2023) Svep1 is a binding ligand of Tie1 and affects specific aspects of facial lymphatic development in a Vegfc-independent manner. eLife 12:e82969 (doi.org/10.7554/eLife.82969)
Clahsen, T., Hadrian, K., Notara, M., Schlereth, SL., et al. (2023) The novel role of lymphatic vessels in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases. Prog Retin Eye Res 7:101157 (doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2022.101157)
Peng, D., Ando, K., Hussmann, M., Gloger, M., Skoczylas, R., Mochizuki, N., Betsholtz, C., Fukuhara, S., Schulte-Merker, S.,Lawson, N.B., Koltowska, K. (2022) Proper migration of lymphatic endothelial cells requires survival and guidance cues from arterial mural cells. eLife vol. 11 e74094 doi:10.7554/eLife.74094
Siret,C. , van Lessen, M., Bavais, J., Jeong, H. W., Kiran, S. , Samawar, R. , Kapupara, K., Wang, S., Simic, M., de Fabritus, L., Tchoghandjian, A., Fallet, M., Huang, H., Sarrazin, S., Sieweke, M.H., Stumm, R., Sorokin, L., Adams, R.H., Schulte-Merker, S., Kiefer, F.,van de Pavert, S.A. (2022) Deciphering the heterogeneity of the Lyve1+ perivascular macrophages in the mouse brain. Nature Communications 13, 7366(doi:10.1038/s41467-022-35166-9)
Labbaf, Z., Petratou, K.,  Ermlich, L., Backer, W., Tarbashevich, K., Reichman, M., Luschnig, S., Schulte-Merker, S., Raz, E. (2022) A robust and tunable system for targeted cell ablation in developing embryos. Dev Cell 31:S1534-5807(22)00497-X. (doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2022.07.008)
Fernández Arancibia, S.M., Oates, A.O., Schulte-Merker, S., Morelli, L. G. (2022) Reaction wavefront theory of notochord segment patterning. Front Phys 10:933915 (doi: 10.3389/fphy.2022.933915)
Arnold, H., Panara, V., Hußmann, M., Filipek-Gorniok, B., Skoczylas, R., Ranefall, P., Gloger, M., Allalou, A., Hogan, B.M., Schulte-Merker, S., Koltowska, K. (2022) mafba and mafbb differentially regulate lymphatic endothelial cell migration in tophographically distinct manners. Cell Rep 39(12):110982 (doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2022.110982)

Di Peng, K.A., Hußmann, M., Gloger, M., Skoczylas, R., Mochizuki, N., Betsholtz, C., Fukuhara, Schulte-Merker, S., Lawson, N.D., Koltowska, K. (2022) Proper migration of lymphatic endothelial cells requires survival and guidance cues from arterial mural cells. eLife 11:e74094 (DOI: 10.7554/eLife.74094)

Coxam B., Collins R.T., Hussmann M., Huisman Y., Meier K., Jung S., Bartels-Klein E, Szymborska A., Lise Finotto, Helker C.S.M , Stainier D.Y.R , Schulte-Merker S., and Gerhardt H. (2022) Svep1 stabilizes developmental vascular anastomosis in reduced flow conditions. Development 149 (6) (doi.org/10.1242/dev.199858)

Koltowska, K., Okuda, K.S., Gloger, M., Rondon-Galeano, M., Mason, E.A., Xuan,J., Dudczig, S., Chen, H., Arnold, H., Skoczylas, R., Bower, N.I., Paterson, S., Lagendijk, A.K., Baillie, G.J., Leshchiner,I., Simons, C., Smith, K.A., Goessling, W., Heath, J.K., Pearson, R.B., Sanij, E., Schulte-Merker, S., and Hogan, B. (2021) The RNA helicase Ddx21 controls Vegfc-driven developmental lymphangiogenesis by balancing endothelial cell ribosome biogenesis and p53 function. Nat Cell Biol 23 1136–1147 (doi.org/10.1038/s41556-021-00784-w).

Huisman, Y., Uphoff, K., Berger, M., Dobrindt, U., Schelhaas, M., Zobel, T., Bussmann, J., van Impel, A., Schulte-Merker, S., (2021). Meningeal lymphatic endothelial cells fulfill scavenger endothelial cell function and cooperate with microglia in waste removal from the brain. Glia 70(1):35-49 (doi:10.1002/glia.24081).

Suárez, I., Schulte-Merker, S. (2021) Cells with Many Talents: Lymphatic Endothelial Cells in the Brain Meninges. Cells 10(4):799 (doi:10.3390/cells10040799).

Mauri, C., van Impel, A., Mackay, E.W., and Schulte-Merker, S. (2021) The adaptor protein Grb2b is an essential modulator for lympho-venous sprout formation. Angiogenesis (doi: 10.1007/s10456-021-09774-w).

Silva, J.F., Cross, S., Marriott, A., Pionnier, N., Archer, J., Steven, A., Schulte-Merker, S., Mack, M., Taylor, M.J., and Turner, J.D. (2021). Tetracyclines improve experimental lymphatic filariasis pathology by disrupting interleukin-4 receptor-mediated lymphangiogenesis. JCI  1;131(5) (doi:10.1172/JCI140853).

Blokzijl-Franke, S., Ponsioen, B., Schulte-Merker, S., Herbomel, P., Kissa, K., Choorapoikayil, S., and den Hertog, J. (2021). Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling controls survival and stemness of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Oncogene (doi:10.1038/s41388-021-01733-5).

Klems A., van Rijssel J., Ramms A., Wild R., Hinkel R, Suarez-Martinez I., Schulte-Merker S., Vidal R., Sauer S., Kivelä R, Alitalo K., Kupatt C., van Buul J., and le Noble F. (2020). The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio controls endothelial cell size and arterial remodeling downstream of Vegf signaling. Nature Communications 11(1):5319 (doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19008-0).

Wang, G., Muhl, L. Padberg, Y., Dupont, L., Peterson-Maduro, J., Stehling, M., Colige, A., le Noble, F., Colige, A., Betsholtz, C., Schulte-Merker, S., and van Impel, A. (2020). Specific Fibroblast subpopulations and neuronal structures serve as local sources of Vegfc-processing components during lymphangiogenesis.Nature Communications 11(1):2724 (doi:10.1038/s41467-020-16552-7).

Yvernogeau, L., Klaus, A., Maas, J., Morin-Poulard, I., Weijts, B., Schulte-Merker, S., Berezikov, E., Junker, J.-P., and Robin, C. (2020). Multispecies RNA tomography reveals Regulators of hematopoietic stem cell birth in the embryonic Aorta. Blood 13;136(7):831-844 (doi:10.1182/blood.2019004446).

Harrison, R.M., Feng, X., Mo, G., Aguayo, A., Villafuerte, J., Yoshida, C., Pearson, C.A., Schulte-Merker, S., and Lien, C.-L. (2019) Late developing cardiac lymphatic vasculature supports adult zebrafish heart function and regeneration. eLife 8;8 (doi:10.7554/elife.42762).

Kugler, E.C., van Lessen, M., et al., Schulte-Merker, S., Armitage, P., and Chico, T.J.A. (2019) Cerebrovascular endothelial cells form transient Notch-dependnet cystic structures in zebrafish. EMBO Reports 20(8):e47047 (doi:10.15252/embr.201847047).

Camargo-Sosa, K., Colanesi, S., Müller, J., Schulte-Merker, S., Stemple, D., Patton, E.E., and Kelsh, R. (2019) Endothelin receptor Aa regulates proliferation and differentiation of Erb-dependent Pigment progenitors in zebrafish. PLoS Genetics 27;15(2):e1007941(doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1007941).

Aleström, P., D'Angelo, L., Midtlyng, P.J., Schorderet, D.F., Schulte-Merker, S., Sohm, F., and Warner, S. (2019) Zebrafish: Housing and husbandry recommendations. Laboratory Animals 54(3):213-224 (doi: 10.1177/0023677219869037).

Lleras-Forero, L., Winkler, C., and Schulte-Merker, S. (2019) Zebrafish and medaka as models for biomedical research of bone diseases. Dev Biol 457(2):191-205 (doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2019.07.009).

Eng, T., Chen, W., Okuda, K., Misa, J., Padberg, Y., Croisier, K., Crosier, P., Hall, C., Schulte-Merker, S., Hogan, B., and Austin, J.A. (2019) Zebrafish facial lymphatics develop through sequential addition of venous and non-venous progenitors. EMBO Reports 20(5):e47079 (doi: 10.15252/embr.201847079).

Mauri, C., Wang, G. and Schulte-Merker, S. (2018) From fish embryos to human patients: lymphangiogenesis in development and disease. Curr Opin in Immunol 53:167-172 (doi:10.1016/j.coi.2018.05.003).

Lleras Forero, L., Narayanan, R., Huitema, L.F.A., van Bergen, M., Apschner, A., Peterson-Maduro, J., Logister, I., Valentin, G., Morelli, L., Oates, A. and Schulte-Merker, S. (2018) Segmentation of the axial skeleton relies on notochord sheath cells and not on the segmentation clock. eLife 7:e33843 (doi:10.7554/eLife.33843).

Wopat, S, Bagwell, J, Sumigray, KD, Dickson, AL, Huitema, LFA, Poss, KD, Schulte-Merker, S, Bagnat, M (2018) Spine Patterning is Guided by Segmentation of the Notochord Sheath. Cell Rep 22(8):2026-2038 (doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2018.01.084).

Pichol-Thievend, C., Betterman, K.L., Liu, X., Skoczylas, R.,  Lesieur; E.,  Schulte, D., Schulte-Merker, S.,   Hogan, B.M.,  Oliver, G.,  Harvey, N., and Francois, M.  A blood capillary plexus-derived population of progenitor cells contributes to genesis of the dermal lymphatic vasculature during embryonic development. Development 145(10) (doi:10.1242/dev.160184).

Pogoda, H.-M., Riedl-Quinkertz, I., Löhr, H., Waxman, J.S., Dale, R.M., Topzewski, J., Schulte-Merker, S., and Hammerschmidt, M. (2018). Direct activation of chordoblasts by retinoic acid is required for segmented centra mineralization during zebrafish spine development. Development, 145(9) (doi:10.1242/dev.159418).

Lopez-Baez, JC, Simpson, DJ, LLeras Forero, L, Zeng, Z, Brunsdon, H, Salzano, A, Brombin, A, Wyatt, C, Rybski, W, Huitema, LFA, Dale, RM, Kawakami, K, Englert, C, Chandra, T, Schulte-Merker, S, Hastie, ND, Patton EE. (2018) Wilms Tumor 1b defines a wound-specific sheath cell Population associated with notochord repair. eLife 6;7:e30657 (doi:10.7554/eLife.30657).

Hogan, B. and Schulte-Merker, S. (2017) How to Plumb a Pisces: Understanding Vascular Development and Disease Using Zebrafish Embryos. Dev Cell 42(6):567-583 (doi: 0.1016/j.devcel.2017.08.015).

van Lessen M., Shibata-Germanos S., van Impel A., Hawkins TA., Rihel J., Schulte-Merker S. (2017) Intracellular uptake of macromolecules by brain lymphatic endothelial cells during zebrafish embryoinc development. eLife 6:e25932 (doi:10.7554/eLife.25932).

Stainier, D.Y.R., Raz, E., Lawson, N.D., Ekker, S.C., Burdine, R.D., Eisen, J.S., Ingham, P.W., Schulte-Merker, S., Yelon, D. et al. (2017) Guidelines for morpholino use in zebrafish. PLoS Genetics 13(10):e1007000 (doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1007000).

Karpänen, T.K., Padberg, Y., van de Pavert, S.A., Dierkes, C., Morooka, N., Peterson-Maduro, J., van de Hoek, G., Adrian, M., Mochizuki, N., Sekiguchi, K., Kiefer, F., Schulte, D., and Schulte-Merker, S. (2017) An evolutionary conserved role for Polydom/SVEP1during lymphatic vessel Formation. Circulation Research 120(8):1263-1275 (doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.308813).

Chiang, I., Fritzsche, M., Pichol-Thievend, C., Neal, A., Holmes, K., Lagendijk, A., Overman, J., D'Angelo, D., Omini, A., Hermkens, D, Lesieur, E., Liu, K., Ratnayaka, I., Corada, M., Bou-Gharios, G., Caroll, J., Dejana, E., Schulte-Merker, S., Hogan, B., Beltrame, M., De Val, S., and Fancois, M. (2017) SoxF factors induce Notch1 expression via direct transcriptional regulation during early arterial development. Development 144 (14):2629-2639 (doi: 10.1242/dev.146241) .

Wild, R., Klems, A., Takamiya, M., Hayashi, Y., Strähle, U., Ando, K., Mochizuki, N., van Impel, A., Schulte-Merker, S., Krueger, J., Preau, L., and le Noble, F. (2017) Neuronal sFlt1 and Vegfaa determine venous sprouting and spinal cord vascularization. Nature Communications 10;8:13991 (doi:10.1038/ncomms13991).

Roukens MG, Peterson-Maduro J, Padberg Y, Jeltsch M, Leppänen VM, Bos FL, Alitalo K, Schulte-Merker, S., Schulte D. (2015) Functional Dissection of the CCBE1 Protein: A Crucial Requirement for the Collagen Repeat Domain. Circulation Research 116(10):1660-9 (doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.304949).

van Impel, A., Zhao, Z., Hermkens, D.M.A., Roukens, G., Fischer, J.C., Peterson-Maduro, J., Duckers, H., Ober, E.A., Ingham, P.W., and Schulte-Merker, S. (2014) Divergence of lymphatic cell specification pathways between zebrafish and mice. Development 141(6):1228-1238 (doi.org/10.1242/dev.105031).

Gordon, K., Schulte, D., et al ...., Schulte-Merker, S., and Ostergaard, P. (2013) A mutation in VEGFC, a ligand for VEGFR3, is associated with autosomal-dominant Milroy-like primary lymphedema. Circulation Research 112(6):956-60 (doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.113.300350)

Huitema LF, Apschner A, Logister I, Spoorendonk KM, Bussmann J, Hammond CL, Schulte-Merker S. (2012) Entpd5 is essential for skeletal mineralization and regulates phosphate homeostasis in zebrafish. PNAS 109(52):21372-77 (doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1214231110).

Bos, F.L., Caunt, M., et al., and Schulte-Merker, S. (2011) CCBE1 Is Essential for Mammalian Lymphatic Vascular Development and Enhances the Lymphangiogneic Effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C In Vivo. Circulation Research 109(5): 486-91 (doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.250738).

Schulte-Merker, S., Sabine, A., and Petrova, T. (2011). Lymphatic vascular morphogenesis in development, physiology, and disease. Journal of Cell Biology 193(4):607-618 (doi:10.1083%2Fjcb.201012094).

Hogan, B.M., Bos, F., Bussmann, J., Witte, M., Chi, N., Duckers, H., Schulte-Merker, S. (2009) Ccbe1 is required for embryonic lymphangiogenesis and venous sprouting. Nature Genetics 41:396-398 (doi:10.1038/ng.321).

Alders, M., Hogan, B.M., Gjini, E., Salehi, F., Al-Gazali, L., Hennekam, E.A., Holmberg, E.E., Mannens, M.M.A.M., Mulder, M.F., Offerhaus, G.J.A., Prescott, T.E., Schroor, E.J., Verheij, J.B.G.M., Witte, M., Zwijnenburg, P.J., Vikkula, M., Schulte-Merker, S. & Hennekam, R.C. (2009) Mutations in CCBE1 cause generalized lymph vessel dysplasia in humans. Nature Genetics 41:1272-1274 (doi:10.1038/ng.484).

Spoorendonk, K., Peterson-Maduro, J., Renn, J., Trowe, T., Kranenbarg, S., Winkler, C., Schulte-Merker, S. (2008) Retinoic Acid and Cyp26b1 are critical regulators of osteogenesis in the axial skeleton. Development 135:3765-3774 (doi:10.1242/dev.024034).

Küchler, A.M., Gjini, E., Peterson-Maduro, J., Cancilla, B., Wolburg, H., Schulte-Merker, S. (2006). Development of the zebrafish lymphatic system requires Vegfc signaling. Current Biology 16:1244-1248 (doi:10.1016/j.cub.2006.05.026).