Dudek SE, Nitzsche K, Ludwig S, Ehrhardt C.

Influenza A viruses suppress cyclooxygenase-2 expression by affecting its mRNA stability.

Sci Rep. 6;6:27275.


Derksen A, Kühn J, Hafezi W, Sendker J, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, Hensel A.

Antiviral activity of hydroalcoholic extract from Eupatorium perfoliatum L. against the attachment of influenza A virus.

J Ethnopharmacol. S0378-8741(16)30279-3.



KathumOA. Schräder T, Anhlan D, NordhoffC, LiedmannS, Pande A, MellmannA, EhrhardtC, WixlerV, LudwigS.

Phosphorylation of influenza A virus NS1 protein at threonine 49 suppresses its interferon antagonistic activity.

Cell Microbiol. 18(6):784-91


Niezold T, Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann M, Maaske A, Temchura V, Heinecke V, Hannaman D, Buer J, Ehrhardt C, Hansen W, Überla K, Tenbusch M.

DNA vaccines encoding DEC205-targeted antigens: Immunity or Tolerance?

Immunology. 145(4):519-33.


Torres-Gómez H, Lehmkuhl K, Frehland B, Daniliuc C, Schepmann D, Ehrhardt C, Wünsch B.

Stereoselective synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of [4.3.3]propellan-8-amines as analogs of adamantanamines.

Bioorg Med Chem. 23:4277-85.

Warnking K, Klemm C, Löffler B, Niemann S, van Krüchten A, Peters G, Ludwig S, Ehrhardt C. Super-infection with Staphylococcus aureus inhibits influenza virus-induced type I IFN signalling through impaired STAT1-STAT2 dimerization. Cell Microbiol. 2015 Mar;17(3):303-17. doi: 10.1111/cmi.12375. Epub 2014 Nov 19.2014 Liedmann S, Hrincius ER, Guy C, Anhlan D, Dierkes R, Carter R, Wu G, Staeheli P, Green DR, Wolff T, McCullers JA, Ludwig S, Ehrhardt C. Viral suppressors of the RIG-I-mediated interferon response are pre-packaged in influenza virions Nat Commun. 2014 Dec 9;5:5645. doi: 10.1038/ncomms6645.Hrincius ER, Liedmann S, Finkelstein D, Vogel P, Gansebom S, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, Hains DS, Webby R, McCullers JA. NS1 mediated inhibition of c-Abl results in acute lung injury and priming for bacterial co-infections; insights into 1918 H1N1 pandemic? J Infect Dis. May 1; 211(9): 1418-28Nacken W, Anhlan D, Hrincius ER, Mostafa A, Wolff T, Sadewasser A, Pleschka S, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S. Activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase upon influenza A virus (IAV) infection is independent of pathogen-related receptors but dependent on amino acid sequence variations of IAV NS1. J Virol 88: 8843-8852. Liedmann S, Hrincius ER, Anhlan D, McCullers JA, Ludwig S, Ehrhardt C. New virulence determinants contribute to the enhanced immune response and reduced virulence of an influenza A virus A/PR8/34 variant. J Infect Dis 209: 532-541. Hrincius ER, Liedmann S, Anhlan D, Wolff T, Ludwig S, Ehrhardt C. Avian influenza viruses inhibit the major cellular signalling integrator c-Abl. Cell Microbiol 16: 1854-1874. Haasbach E, Hartmayer C, Hettler A, Sarnecka A, Wulle U, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, Planz O. Antiviral activity of Ladania067, an extract from wild black currant leaves against influenza A virus in vitro and in vivo. Front Microbiol 5: 171. Dierkes R, Warnking K, Liedmann S, Seyer R, Ludwig S, Ehrhardt C. The Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 exerts anti-influenza virus properties by affecting the viral polymerase complex activity. PLoS One 9: e88520. Derksen A, Hensel A, Hafezi W, Herrmann F, Schmidt TJ, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, Kuhn J. 3-O-Galloylated Procyanidins from Rumex acetosa L. Inhibit the Attachment of Influenza A Virus. PLoS One 9: e110089. 2013 Musiol A, Gran S, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, Grewal T, Gerke V, Rescher U. Annexin A6-balanced late endosomal cholesterol controls influenza A replication and propagation. MBio 4: e00608-00613. Stab V, Nitsche S, Niezold T, Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann M, Wiechers A, Tippler B, Hannaman D, Ehrhardt C, Überla K, Grunwald T, Tenbusch M. Protective efficacy and immunogenicity of a combinatory DNA vaccine against Influenza A Virus and the Respiratory Syncytial Virus. PLoS One 8: e72217. Haasbach E, Hartmayer C, Hettler A, Sarnecka A, Wulle U, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, Planz O. The NF-kappaB inhibitor SC75741 protects mice against highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus. Antiviral Res 99: 336-344. Feld M, Shpacovitch V, Ehrhardt C, Fastrich M, Goerge T, Ludwig S, Steinhoff M. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 agonist activates anti-influenza mechanisms and modulates IFNgamma-induced antiviral pathways in human neutrophils. Biomed Res Int 2013: 879080. Ehrhardt C, Dudek SE, Holzberg M, Urban S, Hrincius ER, Haasbach E, Seyer R, Lapuse J, Planz O, Ludwig S. A plant extract of Ribes nigrum folium possesses anti-influenza virus activity in vitro and in vivo by preventing virus entry to host cells. PLoS One 8: e63657. Ehrhardt C*, Rückle A*, Hrincius ER, Haasbach E, Anhlan D, Ahmann K, Banning C, Reiling SJ, Kühn J, Strobl S, Vitt D, Leban J, Planz O, Ludwig S. The NF-kappaB inhibitor SC75741 efficiently blocks influenza virus propagation and confers a high barrier for development of viral resistance. Cell Microbiol 15: 1198-1211. 2012 Winkler M, Bertram S, Gnirß K, Nehlmeier I, Gawanbacht A, Kirchhoff F, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, Kiene M, Moldenhauer AS, Goedecke U, Karsten CB, Kühl A, Pöhlmann S. Influenza A virus does not encode a tetherin antagonist with Vpu-like activity and induces IFN-dependent tetherin expression in infected cells. PLoS One 7: e43337. Niemann S, Ehrhardt C, Medina E, Warnking K, Tuchscherr L, Heitmann V, Ludwig S, Peters G, Löffler B. Combined action of influenza virus and Staphylococcus aureus panton-valentine leukocidin provokes severe lung epithelium damage. J Infect Dis 206: 1138-1148. Hrincius ER, Hennecke AK, Gensler L, Nordhoff C, Anhlan D, Vogel P, McCullers JA, Ludwig S, Ehrhardt C. A single point mutation (Y89F) within the non-structural protein 1 of influenza A viruses limits epithelial cell tropism and virulence in mice. Am J Pathol 180: 2361-2374. Meisen I, Dzudzek T, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, Mormann M, Rosenbruck R, Lumen R, Kniep B, Karch H, Muthing J. The human H3N2 influenza viruses A/Victoria/3/75 and A/Hiroshima/52/2005 preferentially bind to alpha2-3-sialylated monosialogangliosides with fucosylated poly-N-acetyllactosaminyl chains. Glycobiology 22: 1055-1076. Nacken W, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S. Small molecule inhibitors of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) possess antiviral activity against highly pathogenic avian and human pandemic influenza A viruses. Biol Chem 393: 525-534. Nordhoff C, Hillesheim A, Walter BM, Haasbach E, Planz O, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, Wixler V. The adaptor protein FHL2 enhances the cellular innate immune response to influenza A virus infection. Cell Microbiol 14: 1135-1147. Rückle A, Haasbach E, Julkunen I, Planz O, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S. The NS1 protein of influenza A virus blocks RIG-I-mediated activation of the noncanonical NF-kappaB pathway and p52/RelB-dependent gene expression in lung epithelial cells. J Virol 86: 10211-10217. Seyer R, Hrincius ER, Ritzel D, Abt M, Mellmann A, Marjuki H, Kuhn J, Wolff T, Ludwig S, Ehrhardt C. Synergistic adaptive mutations in the hemagglutinin and polymerase acidic protein lead to increased virulence of pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus in mice. J Infect Dis 205: 262-271.2011Ehrhardt C. From virus entry to release: the diverse functions of PI3K during RNA virus infection. Future Virology, 6(10), 1225-12393Hrincius ER, Dierkes R, Anhlan D, Wixler V, Ludwig S, Ehrhardt C. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is activated by influenza virus vRNA via the pathogen pattern receptor Rig-I to promote efficient type I interferon production. Cell Microbiol, Dec;13(12):1907-192010 Eierhoff T, Hrincius ER, Rescher U, Ludwig S, Ehrhardt C.The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) promotes uptake of influenza A viruses (IAV) into host cells. PLoS Pathog. 6(9), e1001099.

Hrincius, E. R., V. Wixler, T. Wolff, R. Wagner, S. Ludwig, and C. Ehrhardt.

CRK adaptor protein expression is required for efficient replication of avian influenza A viruses and controls JNK mediated apoptotic responses.

Cell Microbiol. 2010 6:831-43 Pubmed

Ma, W., D. Brenner, Z. Wang, B. Dauber, C. Ehrhardt, K. Hogner, S. Herold, S. Ludwig, T. Wolff, K. Yu, J. A. Richt, O. Planz, and S. Pleschka.

The NS segment of an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is sufficient to alter replication efficiency, cell tropism, and host range of an H7N1 HPAIV.

J Virol 2010 84:2122-33. Pubmed

Ehrhardt, C., R. Seyer, E. R. Hrincius, T. Eierhoff, T. Wolff, and S. Ludwig. 

Interplay between influenza A virus and the innate immune signaling. (Review)

Microbes Infect 2010 12:81-87. Pubmed


Pauli, E. K., M. Schmolke, H. Hofmann, C. Ehrhardt, E. Flory, C. Munk, and S. Ludwig.

High level expression of the anti-retroviral protein APOBEC3G is induced by influenza A virus but does not confer antiviral activity.

Retrovirology 2009 6:38. Pubmed

Eierhoff, T., S. Ludwig, and C. Ehrhardt.

The influenza A virus matrix protein as a marker to monitor initial virus internalisation.

Biol Chem 2009 390:509-15. Pubmed

Entschladen, F., J. A. Lindquist, E. Serfling, G. Thiel, A. Kieser, K. Giehl, C. Ehrhardt, S. M. Feller, O. Ullrich, F. Schaper, O. Janssen, R. Hass, and K. Friedrich.

Signal transduction-receptors, mediators, and genes.

Sci Signal 2009 2:mr3. Pubmed

Ehrhardt, C., and S. Ludwig.

A new player in a deadly game: influenza viruses and the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. (Review)

Cell Microbiol 11:863-71. Pubmed

Friedrich, K., J. A. Lindquist, F. Entschladen, E. Serfling, G. Thiel, A. Kieser, K. Giehl, C.Ehrhardt, S. M. Feller, O. Ullrich, F. Schaper, O. Janssen, and R. Hass.

Signal transduction in the footsteps of goethe and schiller.

Cell Commun Signal 2009 7:2. Pubmed


Feld, M., V. M. Shpacovitch, C. Ehrhardt, C. Kerkhoff, M. D. Hollenberg, N. Vergnolle, S.Ludwig, and M. Steinhoff.

Agonists of proteinase-activated receptor-2 enhance IFN gamma-inducible effects on human monocytes: role in influenza A infection.

J Immunol 2008 180:6903-10. Pubmed


Vogl, T., K. Tenbrock, S. Ludwig, N. Leukert, C. Ehrhardt, M. A. van Zoelen, W. Nacken, D.Foell, T. van der Poll, C. Sorg, and J. Roth.

Mrp8 and Mrp14 are endogenous activators of Toll-like receptor 4, promoting lethal, endotoxin-induced shock.

Nat Med 2007 13:1042-9. Pubmed

Ehrhardt, C., T. Wolff, and S. Ludwig.

Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling by the nonstructural NS1 protein is not conserved among type A and B influenza viruses.

J Virol 2007 81:12097-100. Pubmed

Droebner, K., C. Ehrhardt, A. Poetter, S. Ludwig, and O. Planz.

CYSTUS052, a polyphenol-rich plant extract, exerts anti-influenza virus activity in mice.

Antiviral Res 2007 76:1-10. Pubmed

Ehrhardt, C., E. R. Hrincius, V. Korte, I. Mazur, K. Droebner, A. Poetter, S. Dreschers, M. Schmolke, O. Planz, and S. Ludwig.

A polyphenol rich plant extract, CYSTUS052, exerts anti influenza virus activity in cell culture without toxic side effects or the tendency to induce viral resistance.

Antiviral Res 2007 76:38-47. Pubmed

Mazur, I., W. J. Wurzer, C. Ehrhardt, S. Pleschka, P. Puthavathana, T. Silberzahn, T. Wolff, O. Planz, and S. Ludwig.

Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) blocks influenza virus propagation via its NF-kappaB inhibiting activity.

Cell Microbiol 2007 9:1683-94. Pubmed

Ehrhardt, C., T. Wolff, S. Pleschka, O. Planz, W. Beermann, J. G. Bode, M. Schmolke, and S. Ludwig.

Influenza A virus NS1 protein activates the PI3K/Akt pathway to mediate antiapoptotic signaling responses.

J Virol 2007 81:3058-67. Pubmed


Ehrhardt, C., M. Schmolke, A. Matzke, A. Knoblauch, C. Will, V. Wixler and S. Ludwig.

Polyethylenemine, a cost-effective transfection reagent. 

Signal Transduction 6:179-184.

Ehrhardt, C., H. Marjuki, T. Wolff, B. Nuernberg, O. Planz, S. Pleschka and S. Ludwig.

Bivalent role of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) during influenza virus infection and host cell defence.

Cell Microbiol. 2006 8:1336-48. Pubmed


Marjuki, H., M. I. Alam, C. Ehrhardt, R. Wagner, O. Planz, H. D. Klenk, S. Ludwig, and S. Pleschka.

Membrane accumulation of influenza A virus hemagglutinin triggers nuclear export of the viral genome via protein kinase Calpha-mediated activation of ERK signaling.

J Biol Chem 2006 281:16707-15. Pubmed


Unterstab, G., S. Ludwig, A. Anton, O. Planz, B. Dauber, D. Krappmann, G. Heins, C. Ehrhardt, and T. Wolff. 

Viral targeting of the interferon-beta-inducing Traf family member-associated NF-kappaB activator (TANK)-binding kinase-1.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005 102:13640-5. Pubmed

Bourteele, S., K. Oesterle, S. Pleschka, G. Unterstab, C. Ehrhardt, T. Wolff, S. Ludwig, and O. Planz.

Constitutive activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB results in impaired borna disease virus replication.

J Virol 2005 79:6043-51. Pubmed


Ehrhardt, C., C. Kardinal, W. J. Wurzer, T. Wolff, C. von Eichel-Streiber, S. Pleschka, O. Planz, and S. Ludwig.

Rac1 and PAK1 are upstream of IKK-epsilon and TBK-1 in the viral activation of interferon regulatory factor-3.

FEBS Lett 2004 567:230-8. Pubmed

Wurzer, W. J., C. Ehrhardt, S. Pleschka, F. Berberich-Siebelt, T. Wolff, H. Walczak, O. Planz, and S. Ludwig.

NF-kappaB-dependent induction of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas/FasL is crucial for efficient influenza virus propagation.

J Biol Chem 2004 279:30931-7. Pubmed

Ludwig, S., T. Wolff, C. Ehrhardt, W. J. Wurzer, J. Reinhardt, O. Planz, and S. Pleschka. 

MEK inhibition impairs influenza B virus propagation without emergence of resistant variants.

FEBS Lett 2004 561:37-43. Pubmed


Planz, O., S. Pleschka, K. Oesterle, F. Berberich-Siebelt, C. Ehrhardt, L. Stitz, and S. Ludwig.

Borna disease virus nucleoprotein interacts with the CDC2-cyclin B1 complex.

J Virol 2003 77:11186-92. Pubmed

Wurzer, W. J., O. Planz, C. Ehrhardt, M. Giner, T. Silberzahn, S. Pleschka, and S. Ludwig.

Caspase 3 activation is essential for efficient influenza virus propagation.

EMBO J 2003 22:2717-28. Pubmed

Bode, J. G., S. Ludwig, C. Ehrhardt, U. Albrecht, A. Erhardt, F. Schaper, P. C. Heinrich, and D. Haussinger. IFN-alpha antagonistic activity of HCV core protein involves induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3. FASEB J 2003 17:488-90. Pubmed

2002Ludwig, S.*, X. Wang*, C. Ehrhardt*, H. Zheng, N. Donelan, O. Planz, S. Pleschka, A. Garcia-Sastre, G. Heins, and T. Wolff. The influenza A virus NS1 protein inhibits activation of Jun N-terminal kinase and AP-1 transcription factors. J Virol 2002 76:11166-71. Pubmed

Scheller, C., S. Sopper, C. Ehrhardt, E. Flory, P. Chen, E. Koutsilieri, S. Ludwig, V. ter Meulen, and C. Jassoy. Caspase inhibitors induce a switch from apoptotic to proinflammatory signaling in CD95-stimulated T lymphocytes. Eur J Immunol 2002 32:2471-80. Pubmed

2001Pleschka, S., T. Wolff, C. Ehrhardt, G. Hobom, O. Planz, U.R. Rapp, S. Ludwig. Influenza virus propagation is impaired by inhibition of the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade. Nat Cell Biol 2001 3:301-5. Pubmed

Ludwig, S.*, C. Ehrhardt*, E. R. Neumeier, M. Kracht, U. R. Rapp, and S. Pleschka. Influenza virus-induced AP-1-dependent gene expression requires activation of the JNK signaling pathway. J Biol Chem 2001 276:10990-8. Pubmed