All publications
Scopus - Results: AU-ID("Grobe Kay" 6603672593)


  • Hedgehog is relayed through dynamic heparan sulfate interactions to shape its gradient. Gude F, Froese J, Manikowski D, Di Iorio D, Grad JN, Wegner S, Hoffmann D, Kennedy M, Richter RP, Steffes G, Grobe K. Nat Commun. 2023, 14(1):758. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-36450-y.
  • Drosophila hedgehog signaling range and robustness depend on direct and sustained heparan sulfate interactions. Manikowski D, Steffes G, Froese J, Exner S, Ehring K, Gude F, Di Iorio, D, Wegner SV, Grobe K. Front. Mol. Biosci. 2023,10.
  • Targeting of bone morphogenetic protein complexes to heparin/heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans in bioactive conformation. Spanou CES, Wohl AP, Doherr S, Correns A, Sonntag N, Lütke S, Mörgelin M, Imhof T, Gebauer JM, Baumann U, Grobe K, Koch M, Sengle G. FASEB J. 2023, 37(1):e22717. doi: 10.1096/fj.202200904R.


  • Hedgehog lipids: promotors of alternative morphogen release and signaling? Manikowski D, Ehring K, Gude F, Jakobs P, Froese J, Grobe K. BioEssays, in press. 
  • Dispatching plasma membrane cholesterol and Sonic Hedgehog dispatch: two sides of the same coin? Ehring K, Grobe K. Biochem Soc Trans. 2021, BST20210918. doi: 10.1042/BST20210918.
  • Conserved cholesterol-related activities of Dispatched 1 drive Sonic hedgehog shedding from the cell membrane. Ehring K, Manikowski D, Goretzko J, Froese J, Gude F, Jakobs P, Rescher U, Kirchhefer U, Grobe K. J Cell Sci. 2022;135(5):jcs258672. doi: 10.1242/jcs.258672. 
  • Surface expression of the immunotherapeutic target GD2 in osteosarcoma depends on cell confluency. Wiebel M, Kailayangiri S, Altvater B, Meltzer J, Grobe K, Kupich S, Rossig C. Cancer Rep (Hoboken). 2021:e1394. doi: 10.1002/cnr2.1394.    


  • C-Terminal Peptide Modifications Reveal Direct and Indirect Roles of Hedgehog Morphogen Cholesteroylation. Manikowski D, Kastl P, Schürmann S, Ehring K, Steffes G, Jakobs P, Grobe K. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 Jan 12;8:615698. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2020.615698
  • Dally-like Is Unlike Dally in Assisting Wingless Spread. Grobe K, Guerrero I. Dev Cell. 2020 Sep 14;54(5):572-573. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2020.08.011. PMID: 32931749
  • Cerebellar Morphology and Behavioral Profiles in Mice Lacking Heparan Sulfate Ndst Gene Function. Lewejohann L, Pallerla SR, Schreiber RS, Gerula J, Grobe K. J Dev Biol. 2020 Jul 11;8(3):13. doi: 10.3390/jdb8030013. PMID: 32664575 
  • Mature oligodendrocytes bordering lesions limit demyelination and favor myelin repair via heparan sulfate production. Macchi, M., Magalon, K., Zimmer, C., Peeva, E., El Waly, B., Brousse, B., Jaekel, S., Grobe, K., Kiefer, F., Williams, A., Cayre, M. and Durbec, P. Elife. 2020;9. pii: e51735. doi: 10.7554/eLife.51735. (2017 IF: 7,616)
  • Neutralizing anti-drug antibodies in Fabry disease can inhibit endothelial enzyme uptake and activity. Stappers, F., Scharnetzki, D., Schmitz, B., Manikowski, D., Brand, S.M., Grobe, K., Lenders, M., and Brand, E. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2019 Oct 6. doi: 10.1002/jimd.12176. (2018 IF: 4.87)


  • Soluble Heparin and Heparan Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans Interfere with Sonic Hedgehog Solubilization and Receptor Binding. Manikowski D, Jakobs P, Jboor H, Grobe K. Molecules. 2019 Apr 23;24(8). doi: 10.3390/molecules24081607.
  • Secreted metalloproteases ADAMTS9 and ADAMTS20 have a non-canonical role in ciliary vesicle growth during ciliogenesis. Nandadasa S, Kraft CM, Wang LW, O'Donnell A, Patel R, Gee HY, Grobe K, Cox TC, Hildebrandt F, Apte SS. Nat Commun. 2019 Feb 27;10(1):953. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-08520-7.


  • Disrupting Hedgehog Cardin-Weintraub sequence and positioning changes cellular differentiation and compartmentalization in vivo.Kastl P, Manikowski D, Steffes G, Schürmann S, Bandari S, Klämbt C, Grobe K. Development. 2018 Sep 21;145(18). doi: 10.1242/dev.167221.
  • Proteolytic processing of palmitoylated Hedgehog peptides specifies the 3-4 intervein region of the Drosophila wing. Schürmann, S., Steffes, G., Manikowski, D., Kastl, P., Malkus, U., Bandari, S., Ohlig, S., Ortmann, C., Rebollido-Rios, R., Otto, M., Nüsse, H., Hoffmann, D., Klämbt, C., Galic, M., Klingauf, J. and Grobe K. Elife. 2018;7. pii: e33033. doi: 10.7554/eLife.33033.
  • Taking the Occam's Razor Approach to Hedgehog Lipidation and Its Role in Development. Manikowski, D., Kastl, P. and Grobe K. J Dev Biol. 2018, 6(1). doi: 10.3390/jdb6010003.   


  • Ca2+ coordination controls Sonic hedgehog structure and ist Scube2-regulated release. Jakobs, P., Schulz, P., Schürmann, S., Niland, S., Exner, S., Rebollido-Rios, R., Manikowski, D., Hoffmann, D., Seidler, D.G. and Grobe, K. J Cell Sci. 2017. 130(19), 3261-3271. doi: 10.1242/jcs.205872. 


  • Bridging the gap: heparan sulfate and Scube2 assemble Sonic hedgehog release complexes at the surface of producing cells.
    Jakobs P, Schulz P, Ortmann C, Schürmann S, Exner S, Rebollido-Rios R, Dreier R, Seidler DG, Grobe K.
    Sci Rep. 2016 May 20;6:26435. doi: 10.1038/srep26435.
    PMID: 27199253


  • Sonic hedgehog processing and release are regulated by glypican heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Ortmann, C., Pickhinke, U., Exner, S., Ohlig, S., Lawrence, R., Jboor, H., Dreier, R. and Grobe, K. (2015) J Cell Sci jcs.170670; Advance Online Article 2015, doi:10.1242/jcs.170670
  • Sweet on Hedgehogs: Supportive roles of Heparan sulfate proteoglycans in Hedgehog-dependent morphogenesis. Bandari, S., Exner, S., Ortmann, C., Bachvarova, V., Vortkamp, A and Grobe, K. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2015, 16(1), 66-76.


  • Mouse macrophages completely lacking Rho (RhoA, RhoB and RhoC) have severe lamellipodial retraction defects, but robust chemotactic navigation and increased motility. Koenigs, V., Jennings, R., Vogl, T., Horsthemke, M., Bachg, A.C., Xu, Y., Grobe, K., Brakebusch, C., Schwab, A., Baehler, M., Knaus, U.G. and Hanley P.J. J Biol Chem, 2014 pii: jbc.M114.563270. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Signaling domain of Sonic Hedgehog as cannibalistic calcium-regulated zinc-peptidase. Rebollido-Rios, R., Bandari. S., Wilms, C., Jakuschev, S., Vortkamp, A., Grobe, K.* and Hoffmann, D.* PLoS Comput Biol., 2014;10(7):e1003707. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003707. eCollection 2014 Jul. * Joint corresponding author
  • Mutational analysis of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin, PP2 reveals Ser-104 is crucial for carbohydrate binding. Bobbili KB, Bandari S, Grobe K, Swamy MJ. Biochem Biophys Res Commun., 2014;450(1):622-7
  • Role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in optic disc and stalk morphogenesis. Cai, Z., Grobe, K. and Zhang, X. Dev Dyn., 2014. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.24142. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Dendritic cell motility and T cell activation requires regulation of Rho-cofilin signaling by the RhoGAP myosin IXb. Xu, Y., Pektor, S., Balkow, S., Grobe, K., Hanley, PJ., Shen, L., Bros, M., Schmidt, T., Bähler, M. and Grabbe, S. J Immunol, 2014;192(8):3559-68
  • Scube2 enhances proteolytic Shh processing from the surface of producing cells. Jakobs, P., Exner, S., Schürmann, S., Pickhinke, U., Bandari, S., Ortmann, C., Kupich, S., Hansen, U., Seidler, DG. and Grobe, K. J Cell Sci., 2014;127(8):1726-37
  • A decorin-deficient matrix affects skin chondroitin/dermatan sulfate levels and keratinocyte function. Nikolovska, K., Renke, JK., Jungmann, O., Grobe, K., Iozzo, RV., Zamfir, AD. and Seidler DG. Matrix Biol., 2014;35:91-102
  • Heparan sulfate Expression in the Neural Crest is Essential for Mouse Cardiogenesis. Pan, Y., Carbe, C., Kupich, S., Pickhincke, U., Ohlig, U., Frye, M., Seelige, R., Pallerla, SR., Moon, AM., Lawrence, R., Esko, JD., Zhang, X. and Grobe, K. Matrix Biology,2014;35:253-65


  • Reactive glia in the injured brain acquire stem cell properties in response to sonic hedgehog glia. Sirko S, Behrendt G, Johansson PA, Tripathi P, Costa M, Bek S, Heinrich C, Tiedt S, Colak D, Dichgans M, Fischer IR, Plesnila N, Staufenbiel M, Haass C, Snapyan M, Saghatelyan A, Tsai LH, Fischer A, Grobe K, Dimou L, Götz M. Cell Stem Cell. 2013;12(4):426-39


  • An emerging role of Sonic hedgehog shedding as a modulator of heparan sulfate interactions. Ohlig, S., Pickhinke, U., Sirko, S., Bandari, S., Hoffmann, D., Dreier, R., Farshi, P., Götz, M. and Grobe, K. J. Biol. Chem. 2012, 287(52), 43708-19.
  • Glycosaminoglycan-dependent restriction of FGF diffusion is necessary for lacrimal gland development. Qu, X., Pan, Y., Carbe, C., Powers, A., Grobe, K. and Zhang X. Development 2012, 139(15), 2730-9


  • The amino acid tryptophan prevents the biosynthesis of dermatan sulfate. Herzog, C., Lippmann, I., Grobe, K., Zamfir, AD., Echtermeyer, F. and Seidler, DG. Mol Biosyst. 2011, 7(10), 2872-81
  • Dual Roles of the Heparan Sulfate Binding Cardin-Weintraub-Motif in Multimeric Sonic Hedgehog. Farshi, P., Ohlig, S., Pickhinke, U., Jochmann, K., Höing, S., Dierker, T. and Grobe, K. J Biol Chem. 2011, 286, 23608-23619
  • A New Role of Sonic Hedgehog Shedding in Functional Activation of the Solubilized Morphogen. Ohlig, S., Farshi, P., Pickhinke, U., van den Boom, J., Höing, S., Jakuschev, S., Hoffmann, D., Dreier, R., Schöler, HR., Dierker, T., Bordych, C. and Grobe, K. Dev. Cell 2011, 20, 764-774
  • Lacrimal Gland Development and Fgf10-Fgfr2b Signaling Are Controlled by 2-O- and 6-O-sulfated Heparan Sulfate. Qu, X., Carbe, C., Tao, C., Powers, A., Lawrence, R., van Kuppevelt, TH., Cardoso, WV., Grobe, K., Esko, JD. and Zhang X. J Biol Chem. 2011, 286(16), 14435-44.
  • Genetic epistasis between heparan sulfate and FGF-Ras signaling controls lens development. Qu, X., Hertzler, K., Pan, Y., Grobe, K., Robinson, ML. and Zhang, X. Dev Biol. 2011, 355(1), 12-20


  • The motorized RhoGAP myosin IXb controls macrophage cell shape and motility. Hanley, P.J., Xu, Y., Kronlage, M., Grobe, K., Schön, P., Song, J., Sorokin, L., Schwab, A and & Bähler, M. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010, 107(27), 12145-50
  • Sulfotransferase Ndst1 is needed for mandible and TMJ development. Yasuda, T., Mundy, C., Kinumatsu, T., Shibukawa, Y., Shibutani, T., Grobe, K., Minugh-Purvis, N., Pacifici, M. and Koyama, E. J Dent Res. 2010, 89(10), 1111-6.


  • Myosin IXa regulates epithelial differentiation and its deficiency results in hydrocephalus. Abouhamed, M.*, Grobe, K.*, San, I.V., Thelen, S., Honnert, U., Balda, M.S., Matter, K. and Bähler, M. Mol Biol Cell. 2009, 20(24), 5074-85 (*Dual first authorship)
  • Heparan Sulfate and Transglutaminase Activity are Required for the Formation of Covalently Crosslinked Hedgehog Multimers. Dierker, T., Dreier, R., Pallerla, SR., Hamer, S., Migone, M. and Grobe, K. J Biol Chem. 2009, 284(47), 32562-71
  • Heparan sulfate modulated, metalloprotease mediated sonic hedgehog release from producing cells. Dierker, T., Dreier, R., Petersen, A., Bordych, C. and Grobe, K. J Biol Chem. 2009, 284(12), 8013-22.


  • Altered heparan sulfate structure in mice with deleted NDST3 gene function. Pallerla S.R., Lawrence, R., Lewejohann, L., Pan, .Y, Fischer, T., Schlomann, U., Zhang, X., Esko, J.D. and Grobe K. J Biol Chem. 2008, 283(24), 16885-94.
  • Bud specific N-sulfation of heparan sulfate regulates Shp2-dependent FGF signaling during lacrimal gland induction. Pan, Y., Carbe, C., Powers, A., Zhang, E.E., Esko, J.D., Grobe, K., Feng, G.S. and Zhang, X. Development. 2008, 135(2), 301-10.


  • Heparan Sulfate Ndst1 Gene Function Variably Regulates Multiple Signaling Pathways During Mouse Development. Pallerla, S.R., Pan, Y., Zhang, X., Esko, J.D. and Grobe, K. Dev. Dyn. 2007, 236, 556-563


  • Heparan Sulfate Biosynthetic Gene Ndst1 is Required for Fgf Signaling in Early Lens Development. Pan, Y., Woodbury, A., Esko, J.D., Grobe, K. and Zhang, X. Development 2006, 133, 4933-4944
  • Proteome Analysis of Maize Pollen for Allergy-relevant Components. Petersen, A., Dresselhaus, T., Grobe, K. and Becker WM. Proteomics 2006, 6, 6317-6325


  • Cerebral Hypoplasia and Craniofacial Defects in Mice Lacking Heparan Sulfate NDST1 Gene Function. Grobe, K., Inatani, M., Pallerla, S.R, Castagnola, C., Yamaguchi, Y., and Esko, J. D. Development 2005, 132, 3777-3786


  • Distinct Translation of N-Deacetylase/N-Sulfotransferase (NDST) Isoenzymes Regulated by Structured 5’UTRs and Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRES). Grobe, K. and Esko, J.D. J Biol Chem 2002, 277(34), 30699-30706
  • Heparan Sulfate and Development: Differential Roles of the N-Acetylglucosamine N-Deacetylase/N-Sulfotransferase (NDST) Isozymes. Grobe, K., Ledin, J., Ringvall, M., Holmborn, K., Forsberg, E., Esko, J.D. and Kjellén, L. Biochim Biophys Acta 2002, 1573(3),209-15
  • Variant Heparan Sulfates in Developing Mouse Brain Differentially Regulate FGF Signaling. Ford-Perriss, M., Guimond, S.E., Greferath, U., Kita, M., Grobe, K., Habuchi, H., Kimata, K., Esko, J.D., Murphy, M. and Turnbull, J.E. Glycobiology 2002, 12(11), 721-727.
  • Properties of Group I Allergens from Grass Pollen and their Relation to Cathepsin B, a Member of the C1 Family of Cysteine Proteinases. Grobe, K., Pöppelmann, M., Becker, W.-M. and Petersen, A. Eur J Biochem 2002, 269, 2083-2092
  • Role of Protein Kinase C in the Phosphorylation of CD33 (Siglec-3) and its Effect on Lectin Activity. Grobe, K. and Powell, L.D. Blood 2002, 99, 3188-3196


  • Multiple Isozymes of Heparan Sulfate/Heparin GlcNAc N-Deacetylase/GlcN N-Sulfotransferase: Structure and Activity of the Fourth Member, NDST4. Aikawa, J.-I., Grobe, K., Tsujimoto, M. and Esko, J.D. J Biol Chem 2001, 276(8), 5876-5882 (Dual first authorship)


  • Cloning and Characterization of Ph1 p 1 in Different Expression Systems. Becker WM, Grobe K., Petersen A. Arb Paul Ehrlich Inst Bundesamt Sera Impfstoffe Frankf A M. 1999, 93, 171-178
  • Grass Group I Allergens (beta-Expansins) are Novel, Papain-Related Proteinases. Grobe, K., Becker, W.M., Schlaak, M. and Petersen, A. Eur J Biochem 1999, 263, 33-40
  • Implications of the Grass Group I Allergens on the Sensitization and Provocation Process. Petersen, A., Grobe, K., Schramm, G., Vieths, S., Altmann, F., Schlaak, M. and Becker, W.-M. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1999, 118, 411-413


  • Enzymatic and Molecular Properties of the Clostridium tertium Sialidase. Grobe, K., Sartori, B., Traving, C., Schauer, R. and Roggentin, P. J Biochem 1998, 124 (6), 1101-1110


  • Comparison of Natural and Recombinant Isoforms of Grass Pollen Allergens. Petersen, A., Grobe, K., Lindner, B., Schlaak, M., and Becker, W.-M. Electrophoresis 1997, 18, 819-825